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Form "International Tribunal on Evictions”

Friday 19 August 2016 6:12:57 pm

General Information

Island of Peace, Jeju Special Self-Governing Province
Seogwipo City
Gangjeong Village, Daejeong, Seongsan-eup, and the entire Jeju Island
1 (Housing), 3 (Entire neighbourhood), 4 (Cultivated land), 5 (Street markets and activities)

Description of case of forced evictions

2 (underway)
我們將案例大略分作三個部分撰述。 We roughly divided the case into three parts. (一) 現在進行中的案例【江汀村濟州海軍基地】 (A) “The Jeju naval base at Gangjeong Village”, which is currently ongoing. (二) 過去決定濟州島作為軍事基地之島,並至今做為未解決之問題的【大靜邑阿德勒飛機場】 (B) “Daejeong-eup Alddreu Airfield” that remains unsolved since the time Jeju Island was determined to be an island of military bases. (三)受未解決之案例與進行中之案例的影響而很有可能發生的【城山邑 第二機場】(空軍基地) (C) “Seongsan-eup second Airport” which is very likely to happen due to the influences of unsolved cases and ongoing cases. 為了克服因軍事主義在濟州島各地發生的強制迫遷犧牲的體系(若以因強制性所引發的地域衝突的視角來看),此三個案例應被綁為一個案例,並追尋共同超越克服的方法。 To overcome a system of compulsory sacrifice which justifies the militarism on Jeju Island (If we see it from the perspective of regional conflict due to enforcement); the three cases should be bundled as one case, we must seek the method to overcome them together. (一)目前正進行中的案例:江汀村濟州海軍基地 (A) Currently ongoing case: Jeju naval base of Gangjeong Village. 1. 濟州4.3事件與和平之島之指定 1. The Jeju Uprising (from April 3, 1948, until May 1949) and the designation of the Island of Peace. 為了正確了解濟州島,有必要先對4.3事件的歷史加以了解。 To correctly understand Jeju Island, it is necessary for us to understand the whole process of the historical event, the April 3 Jeju Uprising. 又,若瞭解了4.3事件的歷史,便能了解江汀村濟州海軍基地之問題, Also, if we completely understand the April 3 Jeju Uprising, we can understand the issue between the residents and the Jeju naval base in Gangjeong Village. 因為若將4.3事件比作因理念衝突所造成的人類屠殺,濟州海軍基地問題則可說是因軍事主義與資本主義所造成的自然與社區共同體的屠殺。 Since, if we describe the April 3 Jeju Uprising as slaughter due to beliefs, the Jeju naval base issue can be called a massacre of nature and community, due to militarism and capitalism. 若理解了4.3事件與濟州海軍基地問題,便能在同一脈絡下理解大靜邑阿德勒飛機場問題與城山邑第二機場問題。 If we completely understand the April 3 Jeju Uprising and Jeju naval base issue, we can understand the issues of Daejeong-eup Alddreu Airfield and Seongsan-eup the 2nd Airport under the same context. 4․3事件發生於日本帝國殖民結束後的美軍政期間,事件一直持續到大韓民國建國之後,前後整整持續了7年多的悲劇,也是韓國現代史中僅次於韓國戰爭,人命受害最多的事件。 The April 3 Jeju Uprising happened during the period of U.S. military governance after the end of the Japanese colonial empire. As it lasted until the founding of the Republic of Korea, and it was a tragedy that continued for more than seven years. It was also the one single event with the most innocent victims killed besides the Korean War in the modern history of Korea. 對美軍政的統治、單獨政府的樹立、以及對島民的鎮壓有所不滿的武裝隊遭美軍與韓國政府動員警察與軍人加以鎮壓。 The islanders were dissatisfied with the rule of US military government, which insisted on the forming of a separate South Korean government, and the US Army and the Korean Government mobilised police and soldiers to repress the island residents. 鎮壓過程中2萬5000~3萬多條人命被汙衊為「赤色份子」慘遭犧牲。 During the suppression, 25,000 to more than 30,000 innocent lives were slandered as “commies” and sacrificed. 房舍4萬多棟盡數燒毀,山腰地帶相當多的村子成了廢墟。 More than 40,000 houses were burned into ashes, and many villages in the mid-slope of the mountain became ruins. 此外,山腰地帶被視作「赤色分子出沒地帶」而時常被當作強制疏散的對象,因為各個村子都還留有被集體屠殺的痕跡,使得原住民們不打算重回老家。 Besides, the mountainside area was regarded as "the place where communists show up” and targeted with forced eviction. Since each village still has the trace left by mass slaughter, original residents do not plan to go back to their home. 因為原住民未重回老家而成為廢墟的村子,分布在濟州島各地區。濟州島民們稱這樣的村子為「消失的村子」。 The villages that became ruins since original residents did not come back are dispersed amongst each region of Jeju Island. The residents of Jeju Island call these villages “the disappeared villages”. 1980年代後,各界為了四三事件真相糾明的努力開花結果,於2000年1月,4·3特別法(濟州四三事件真相糾明暨犧牲者名譽恢復相關特別法)公布,實現了從政府部門次元來進行的真相調查與道歉。 After the 1980s, the public strived to investigate for the truth of the Jeju Uprising. Under the collective efforts, the Special Law (the Special Law for Investigation of the Jeju 4ᆞ3 Incident and Honoring Victims) was published in January 2000, which carried out the truth investigation and apology from the government sector. 四三特別法公布後,將四三事件造成的衝突與反目的歷史予以清算,以求在和解與相生的精神下重生。 After the Jeju April 3 Special Law was published, the history of the conflicts and hatreds caused by Jeju April 3 were brought to light to be born again in the spirit of reconciliation and mutualism. 由此作為契機,濟州島於2005年1月被指定為世界和平之島。 Based on this opportunity, Jeju Island was designated as the Island of World Peace. 2. 江汀村濟州海軍基地建設 2. Construction of Jeju Naval base at Gangjeong Village (1) 濟州海軍基地建設背景 (1) The background of constructing Jeju naval base 1993年起被提出的大洋海軍戰略 ❏ Since 1993, the Ocean Naval Strategy was proposed. 1993年12月,舉行的156次國防部合同參謀會議上提出: In December of 1993, it was proposed during the 156th Department of Defense & Staff Committee Meeting. 因韓國貿易量的99.8%通過濟州島南方海域,因此為比照「大洋海軍」之展望,「1997-2001年國防中期計畫」中發表了: Since 99.8% of Korea’s trade volume are made through the southern sea of Jeju Island, “the Medium-term National Defense Plan for 1997-2001” was published, compared to the perspective of “Great Navy”. 有必要將南濟州郡安德面和順港作為海軍專用碼頭。 It is necessary to make Hwasun port in Southern Jeju to be a naval wharf. 和順->唯美->江汀 ❏ Hwasun ->Wimi -> Gangjeong 海軍分別在2005、2006年於濟州道西歸浦市的和順與唯美村強行推行海軍基地建設,但都因村民的強烈反對而破局。 In 2005 and 2006The Navy pushed to construct naval bases respectively at Hwasun and Wimi Villages, Seogwipo City, Jeju Province but failed due to the strong opposition from the villagers. 2007年4月26日,由西歸浦市江汀村村民87人聚集所召開的臨時大會中,決定引進海軍基地。 On April 26, 2007, the General Assembly held by 87 villagers from Gangjeong Village, Seogwipo City determined to introduce the naval base. 接著,濟州道政府與海軍便公布並開始推動此計畫。 Later, the Jeju government and the Navy started promoting this project. 從民用港為中心轉變為軍港為中心 ❏ It started turning into a centre of the military port from the centre of the civil port. 濟州海軍基地在盧武鉉政府時,是依照以民用港為中心的軍事中途停靠港來編成預算, During the Roh Moo-hyun’s governing, Jeju naval base was budgeted by the idea of military port of call but still centred as a civil port. 但是李明博政府時,將其變更為可容納兩艘15萬噸游輪同時靠岸的「民軍複合觀光美港」。 However, when it was Lee Myung-bak’s government, the port was modified to be a "Civilian-Military Complex port for Tour Beauty” capable of housing two 150,000-ton cruises at the same time. 又,2012年9月民主黨議員Jang, Hana揭露,濟州海軍基地之設計是根據駐韓美海軍司令部之要求能讓航空母艦駐屯的規格在進行。 Moreover, in September 2012, the senator of Democratic Party, Jang, Hana exposed that the design of Jeju naval base was according to the requirement from the headquarters of the USNFK(US naval forces, Korea) to meet the specific standard to let aircraft carriers stay. (2) 江汀村簡介 (2) Introduction to Gangjeong Village 江汀村概要 ❏ Summary of Gangjeong Village 位置坐落在濟州島最中南方。 ● It is located at the most central south of Jeju Island. 2016年5月12日為基準的人口數為2013人。 On May 12, 2016, the benchmark population is 2013 people. 四季湧泉水湧溢,是濟州島內少數能進行水田稻作的所在,在過去食衣住豐饒,濟州島民因此稱其為「一江汀」。 It owns springs with water flowing during all seasons, and it is one of the few places that can plant rice paddy. Since this place was surrounded by good resources of food and living in the past, so the residents on Jeju Island call this place “Il-GangJeong”(means Gangjeong, the best). 江汀前海在2000年後陸續訂定了7個保護地區,遭受保存。 There were seven reservation areas in Gangjeong Front Sea desiganated after year 2000 for preservation. 聯合國教科文組織生物圈保存地域(2002年12月) The biosphere reservation area designated by UNESCO (December 2002) 天然紀念物第421號的蚊島、虎島天然保護區域(2000年7月) Munseom island and Beomseom Island were designated as Korea Natural Monument #421 and Nature Reserve (July 2000). 天然紀念物第442號濟州沿岸軟珊瑚群落(2004年12月) The soft coral communities on Jeju coast was designated as Korean Natural Monument #442. (December 2004) 海洋水產部指定的生態界保存地域(2002年11月5日)、濟州道指定的濟州道海洋獨立公園(2006年10月) Ecological conservation area designated by the Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries (November 5, 2002), and Jeju Ocean Independence Park designated by the Jeju Government (October 2006) 濟州道指定的絕對保存地域(2004年10月27日)、海洋水產部指定的絕對保存沿岸地域(2007年4月)。 The Absolute Conservation Area designated by Jeju Government (October 27, 2004), and the absolute conservation coastal zone designated by the Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries (April 2007). 江汀村內有江汀川與岳近川兩大水流。 There are two major water streams, Gangjeong River and Akguen River in the Gangjeong Village. 四季水源不枯竭,朝大海流奔,水源乾淨,是西歸浦市民80%飲用水的來源。 It does not lack water in four seasons, and it provides 80% of drinking water for citizens in Seogwipo City. 為了守護此環境,江汀村居民從很早前就組了「美麗環境監視團」,在2006年5月,環境部將江汀村指定為「自然生態優秀村莊」。 To protect this environment, residents in Gangjeong Village assembled the “monitoring team to protect this lovely environment" very earlier. In May 2006, the Ministry of Environment designated the Gangjeong Village as the "outstanding village with natural ecology." 江汀村的歷史與文化價值 Historic and cultural values of Gangjeong Village 江汀村從史前時代開始,便有人類開始紮根定居。 From the prehistoric times, there were humans residing at Gangjeong Village area. 特別是因濟州海軍基地建設而出土的青銅器、鐵器,朝鮮後期的遺跡遺物等,是能夠讓人了解濟州文化起源的程度。 Especially, due to the bronze, iron tools and remains of the late Joseon Dynasty unearthed with the construction of Jeju Naval Base, people started to understand more about the level of cultural origin in Jeju. 在濟州島上,還未曾有在同一地區中挖掘出如此多樣時代遺跡的經驗。 On Jeju Island, it had never been that once so many remains were dig and unearthed at the same region. 又,離濟州海軍基地不超過1km之處的江汀村內,發現了蒙古皇帝曾建設避難宮殿的文獻與遺跡,江汀村被評做具有高歷史價值之地區。 Besides, just in the place with 1km distance from Jeju naval base, the documents and remains of Mongol emperor at the place he built for refuging palace at the Gangjeong Village, so the Gangjeong Village is a place reputed with high historical value. 江汀村內有許多神堂。 There are many shrines at the Gangjeong Village. 所謂的神堂是為了村子與個人的平安祈求的所在。 What called a shrine is a place for people to pray for the safety onto the village and individuals. 也可說是村民們領導歷史與文化之基準。 It can be regarded as the standard of history and culture led by villagers. 在濟州島,建村的歷史與本鄉堂的歷史相同。 In Jeju Island, the developing histories of the village can be tracked with the developing of shrines for village guardians. 又,以神堂與村裡的神為中心,遵循了各種忌日或祭日的禁忌。 Moreover, centring the Gods of the shrine and of the village, people cope with various festivals (days with banning something) and taboos. 當然,以宗教來看,被分類為巫俗信仰,但基本上是仍維持此活動的村莊共同體意識的其中一個根源。 Certainly, from the religious aspect, they are classified as folk-witch beliefs, but it is one of the sources to keep the consciousness of community for villagers to sustain such activities. 簡單的說,神堂也可說是象徵一個村子的尊嚴之地。 Simply speaking, the village shrines can be regarded as the place of dignity for a village. 江汀村「䃓澰泌(Gureombi)」(Gureombi)岩石介紹 The introduction of Gureombi Rock in Gangjeong Village 「䃓澰泌(Gureombi)」岩石是古早前,因火山活動之熔岩從海裡隆起所形成的長1.2km、寬150m的單體巨岩地形。 Gureombi Rock is the single, masive 1.2km-long, 150m-wide volcanic rock that was formed by hot lava flowing down the sea in ancient time. 「䃓澰泌(Gureombi)」岩石也是世界性的稀罕地形。 Gureombi rockbed is also a stretch of unique topography in the world. 在岩石上,有許多湧泉水湧出,形成了國內唯一的岩石濕地。 On the rock, there is abundant spring water gushing out. It forms the only rocky wetland in the country. 江汀村村民從很早以前就將岩石上的泉水當作飲用水。 Since long time ago, villagers of Gangjeong Village drink the water from rocks as drinking water. 「䃓澰泌(Gureombi)」岩石 一帶棲息著紅腳螃蟹(中型相手蟹)、狹口蛙、華克拉莎、濟州淡水蝦等滅種危機生物。 There are many animals which face extinction have been found in the area of Gureombi Rock, such as Red-Foot Crab ( Sesarma Intermedium), Narrow Mouth Frog (Kaloula Borealis), Cladium chinense and Jeju saebaengi (native freshwater shrimp of Jeju Island) 濟州道政府在2004年10月27日將江汀村「䃓澰泌(Gureombi)」岩石一帶,依據「為建成濟州特別自治道與國際自由都市之特別法」,指定其為「絕對保證地域」。 On October 27, 2004, the Jeju government designated region of Gureombi Rock at Gangjeong Village as the “Absolute Conservation Zone” according to “ SPECIAL ACT ON THE ESTABLISHMENT OF JEJU SPECIAL SELF-GOVERNING PROVINCE AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF FREE INTERNATIONAL CITY.” (3) 在江汀村發生的迫遷 (3) Forced-eviction happened in Gangjeong Village 受迫遷的民主主義1(決定引進基地的過程) Democracy forced to be evicted 1(the process of determining to introduce the base) 2007年4月26日江汀村前村長召開臨時大會,1900名村民中僅87名參與的大會中,大家用拍手通過了在江汀村設置海軍基地的案子。 On April 26, 2007, the former mayor of Gangjeong Village held a provisional assembly, with only 87 of 1900 villagers attended, and the case of a naval base at Gangjeong Village was passed with clapping hands of these people. 在從未舉辦過一次海軍基地事業說明會或公聽會的情況下召開了臨時大會, It was a provisional assembly held without any orientation of naval base construction had before. 臨時大會的召開也是違反江汀村的鄉約下召開的(大會公告時間不足、大會主題從「海軍基地相關事項」臨時修改為「引進海軍基地之事項」)。 The holding of provisional assembly also breached the town agreement of Gangjeong Village (the time released of announcement for such assembly was not enough, and the topic “relevant issues about naval base” was suddenly changed to “issues of introducing naval base”). 又參加大會的87人中,也有人持反對意見,但其意見卻被忽視。 Moreover, among 87 people that attended this assembly, there were people opposing the base but their opinions were ignored. 當時參與臨時大會的87人中,有40多人是江汀村的海女。 Among 87 people that attended this provisional assembly, there were more than 40 people were Haenyeo (female divers). 海軍說服海女,說「會支付1億5千萬韓元程度的補償金,海軍進到村裡,會蓋學校,人口會增加,生活會變得更好。海不會被汙染,因此,請幫忙贊成海軍基地」。 The Navy convinced these Haenyeo that “they will pay 150 million Korean dollars as compensation, and when the Navy comes to the village, they will build schools, the population will increase, and the life will be better. Moreover, the ocean will not be polluted, so please help us with supporting the issue of the naval base.” 2009年1月21日,海軍將海女補償金68億韓元以及漁業船補償金9億7000萬韓元等,共約78億韓元的漁業受害補償金匯到江汀村漁會帳戶。 On January 21, 2009, the Navy transferred an amount over 6800 million Korean dollars as compensation for Haenyeo and 970 million dollars as compensation for fishing boats, as totally 7800 million Korean dollars into the account of Gangjeong Village Fishermen's Association. 濟州道於2007年4月30日把江汀村囊括為候補地。 The Jeju government planned the Gangjeong Village into the alternate land for naval base on April 30, 2007. 發表江汀村民贊成引進海軍基地後,如同早料到此結果一般,國防部立刻開始海軍基地事業的宣傳活動, After the result that Gangjeong villagers agreed to introduce naval base was announced, as if it had been expected, the Ministry of Defense immediately began to promote their affairs about the naval base. 濟州道廳在一周內實施了兩次海軍基地贊成與反對的民意調查。 Jeju government implemented the poll for residents who support and oppose naval base twice in a week. 透過此民意調查結果,贊成海軍基地的結果出爐,2007年5月14日,濟州道知事發表將在江汀村引進海軍基地之決定。 Through this result of the poll, we see results in favour of the naval base came out in 2007. On May 14, the governor of Jeju announced the naval base will be introduced to the Gangjeong Village. 雖有約40%的反對民意,卻完全沒有進行任何島民協商,以速戰速決的方式做了決策。 Although there were about 40% of Jeju islanders opposing against this, there was not any consultation with islanders, instead only done under a quick and rush move. 2007年5月江汀村村民成立引進海軍基地反對委員會, In May 2007, villagers of Gangjeong Village found “Anti-naval base committee, Gangjeong village.” 2007年6月17日,江汀村協會監事會依據鄉約,行使其職權,召開臨時大會,江汀村史上最多村民(600多名)參加了此次大會。 On June 17, 2007, the Board of Gangjeong Village Association, held a provisional assembly to let the most villagers (600 people) attend this assembly in the history of Gangjeong Village. 當天,雖預計針對是否引進海軍基地一案進行投票,因為贊成派的抗議,以及海女強行劫走投票箱以及投票用紙之事件,而使得投票無法進行。 On that day, though villagers planned to vote on whether to support or object the introduction of a naval base, due to the protest of base supporters, and the incident that Haenyeo snatched away ballot boxes and ballot papers, the voting was forced to stop. 當時「江汀村引進海軍基地反對對策委員會」委員長用署名的方式,獲得在場537名村民持反對意見的署名。 At that time, the chairperson of “Anti-naval base committee, Gangjeong village” collect the signatures of whom opposed naval base, and total 537 signatures against base were collected. 2007年8月10日,召開江汀村臨時大會,解任了主導引進海軍基地的前會長(全員436名,其中416名同意解任),並重新選出姜東均為村長。 On August 10, 2007, the provisional assembly was held at Gangjeong Village, and members dismissed the former chairperson who dominated the case of introducing a naval base (total paticipating members were 436 people, and among them 416 people agreed for dismissal) and re-elected the new mayor Kang Dong-Kyun. 2007年8月20日舉行針對海軍基地引進一案的贊成與反對之投票,725名村民參與,其中680名投反對票,是以海軍基地引進一案被駁回。 On August 20, 2007, a voting on whether to introducing a naval base was held, and among 725 villagers participating in, 680 villagers voted against the introduction of the naval base. Therefore, the naval base project was rejected. 然而此投票結果並未被接受,海軍基地工程強行動工。 However, the result of the voting was not accepted, and the construction of naval base was forcibly started. 2007年7月3日,「為阻止濟州海軍基地與實現和平之島的泛島民對策委員會」成立,指出民意調查決定相關的可信性與公正性之問題,發起住民罷免濟州道知事金泰煥的運動。 On 2007 July 3, "Jeju Pan-Island Committee for Stopping the Military Base and Realizing a Peaceful Island” was established, and it pointed out the credibility and impartiality issues related to voting and polls, followed by initiating a citizen movement to recall the Jeju governor, Taehwan Kim. 但是因投票率過低,而沒能將濟州道知事免職。 ● However, as the voter turnout was too low, the Jeju governor was not removed from office. 遭迫遷的民主主義 2 (「䃓澰泌(Gureombi)」岩石之絕對保證地域遭解除之過程) Democracy forced to be evicted 2 (the process of removing the status of absolute conservation zone of Gureombi rock) 問題從擇地的妥當性調查開始。 The problem was started by the investigation of validity of choosing places 江汀村最初並非海軍基地的候補地。 Gangjeong Village was not a candidate for the naval base in the begining. 海軍從1999年~2001年選擇了和順港作為最適當之候補地。 During 1999 to 2001, the Navy picked the Hwasun port as the most appropriate candidate. 當時江汀村連檢驗對象都未被納入。 At that time, the Gangjeong Village was not even among the candidates to be examined. 但是,海軍在2007年3月實施的擇地妥當性調查中,在9個村莊中,江汀村卻被選作最適當之地點。 However, in the investigation of the validity of choosing lands in March 2007, among nine villages, Gangjeong Village was selected as the most appropriate location. 在此調查中江汀村與其他村子做比較時,看不出太大的差異,也未對文化財產作調查,調查中記載「無特別文化遺產」, In this investigation, and while Gangjeong Village was compared with the other villages, there was no much difference, nor of any investigation about cultural property, as recorded in the investigation, "no particular cultural heritage" in the village. 但在江汀村棲息著作為千年紀念物的軟珊瑚群落地等事實遭遺漏,又關於其他候補地雖記載著「全面與鄰近海域為絕對保護地域」,但江汀村「䃓澰泌(Gureombi)」岩石同為絕對保護地域的事實卻遭遺漏。 Nonetheless, the fact that Gangjeong Village was the habitat for soft coral communities desiganated as the Natural Monument was omitted. While the other candidate locations were recorded that "Sea area as absolute conservation zone”, the fact that Gureombi Rock area in Gangjeong village was also the “absolute conservation zone” was neglected. 海軍為建設濟州海軍基地,在2009年9月22日向濟州道知事要求解除絕對保證地域的指定, To build the Jeju naval base in Gangjeong, on September 22, 2009, the Navy asked the Jeju governor to cancle the designation of absolute conservation zone in Gureombi Rock area. 2009年12月17日,席次過半數的執政黨大國家黨道議員們將在常任委員會中遭否決的解除絕對保證地域一案提交大會後,封鎖了道議會入口,不讓在野黨的道議員進入會場,單方面強行處理了此案。 On December 17, 2009, members of Jeju assembly from the rulling party, Grand National Party, resubmitted the agenda of cancelation of absolute conservation zone to General Assembly, which was once rejected in the Standing Committee, and blocked the entrance to prevent the members of opposition party from entering the hall. Thus, they could handle the case in a unilaterally and forcibly way. 就此,海軍開啟了能在曾是絕對保證地域的「䃓澰泌(Gureombi)」岩石上進行工程的大門。 After this, the Navy got the key to process construction on Gureombi Rock area that once was the “absolute conservation zone”. 遭迫遷的「䃓澰泌(Gureombi)」岩石、大海以及其上的生命(「䃓澰泌(Gureombi)」岩石與大海的破壞與強制移植滅種危機種) Gureombi Rock, ocean and lives lived over them were forced to be evicted. (The destruction of Gureombi Rock and sea and forced removal on the endangered species). 海軍為了獲得海軍基地建設許可,為了跑程序所製作的環境影響評估書中,甚至遺漏了其作為紅腳螃蟹(中型相手蟹)、狹口蛙、濟州淡水蝦等滅種危機生物之棲息地之事實。 To get the construction permission, the Navy omitted the fact in the Environment Impact Assessment report that the land was a habitat for the endangered species such as Red-Foot Crab ( Sesarma Intermedium), Narrow Mouth Frog (Kaloula Borealis), and Jeju saebaengi (native freshwater shrimp of Jeju Island). 2009年9月22日,濟州地區的環保團體「濟州環境運動聯合」聯合濟州大學生物學教授揭發了事業用地本身是紅腳螃蟹(中型相手蟹)大規模棲息之地,後又陸續揭發其為狹口蛙、濟州淡水蝦棲息地之事實。 On September 22, 2009, the local environmental group of Jeju, “Korea Federation of Environmental Movement in Jeju" cooperated with biology professors from Jeju University to expose the fact that such land was a large-scale habitat for Red-Foot Crab ( Sesarma Intermedium), followed by revealing the land was the habitat also for Narrow Mouth Frog (Kaloula Borealis) and Jeju saebaengi (native freshwater shrimp of Jeju Island). 但是海軍在承認其為這些生命體的棲息地之事實後,即刻對紅腳螃蟹(中型相手蟹)、狹口蛙、濟州淡水蝦進行採集,確立並實行了將其移植到別處的對策。 However, after the Navy admitting the area was the habitat for these endangered species, immediatelly, they rushed to collect these endangered species as they certified the strategy to remove these species to other places. 在移植過程,既有死傷,後又發生移植地遭破壞之事。 During the process of removal, many species died and harmed, followed by the fact the new places as habitats were also ruined. 海軍只獲得了贊成海軍基地居民的同意,又在遺漏了許多滅種危機生物與作為千年紀念物的軟紅珊瑚群落地的情況下進行了環境影響評估。 The Navy conducted Environmental Impact Assessment while only receiving the aggrement from minority group of base supporters and while neglecting the endangered species and soft coral communities designated as Natural Monumnet. 2009年1月,將此份環評結果送交國防部,獲得了國防與軍事設施計畫之承認。 In January 2009, the result of environmental impact assessment was sent to the Ministry of National Defense and acquired the approval of military facilities plan. 對此,江汀村協會聲稱此國防與軍事設施計畫本身無效,並向法院提出了國防與軍事設施計畫無效確定之訴訟,然而,訴訟結果為敗訴。 As to this regard, the Gangjeong Village Association claimed that the military facilities plan was not valid, and filed a lawsuit to identify the military facilities plan as invalid. However, they lost the case. 江汀村海中的軟珊瑚群落(2004年指定的千年紀念物第442號),作為國家指定文化財而受保護,是以,為建設濟州海軍基地,根據文化財保護法,需要獲得國家指定文化財現狀變更許可。 Since the soft coral communities designated as the Natural Monument # 442 which inhabitates in the Gangjeong Sea should be protected as being designated as a national cultural property, and therefore, the construction of the Jeju naval base was required to obtain the approval of changing status of cultural property according to the Cultural Properties Protection Law. 海軍在2008年7月,申請了國家指定文化財現狀變更許可,2009年9月,獲得文化財廳的許可。 In July 2008, the Navy applied for the change of status of cultural property and in September 2009, the Cultural Property Office approved the Navy’s application. 但是,文化財廳也在軟珊瑚群落調查過程中,刻意疏漏了棲息在江汀前海作為法定保護種的13種軟珊瑚。以「無軟珊瑚群落」之斷定,發給了許可。 Yet, the Cultural Property Office also deliberately omitted the fact that 13 kinds of soft corals inhabitate in the front sea of Gangjeong, and issued the approval with the judgement "there was no soft coral community inhabitating". 又,文化財廳所示的濟州海軍基地許可條件中,包含了「制定針對懸浮沉澱物汙染物質的有效對策」, Also, among conditions of approval of Jeju naval base from the Cultural Property Office, they included “the effective countermeasures made for pollutants suspended and precipitates." 海軍卻在未遵守此條件的情況下,進行不法工程,因而造成了軟珊瑚生態界嚴重破壞的狀況。 The Navy did not cope with this condition and carried out the illegal construction, which resulted in severe damages on soft coral ecosystems. 又,在違反許可條件時,應中斷工程、予以糾正,但是海軍也未加以遵守。 And once there was any breach of the conditions of approval, the construction should be interrupted and corrected, but the Navy also ignored it. 遭迫遷的生存權(農地、示威帳篷、定居地等) The right to life under forced-eviction (farmlands, the demonstrators’ tents, settlement, etc.) 「䃓澰泌(Gureombi)」岩石一帶除外的海軍基地建設用地多為農耕地,其中僅50.5%的土地為江汀村居民所有。 Except the area of Gureombi Rock, the majority of lands planned to be constructed as naval bases were mostly farmlands, and only 50.5% of the land were owned by residents of Gangjeong Village. 許多居民是租地務農。 Many residents rented these lands for farming. 海軍以所有居民皆已領走供託金為由,主張土地並非強制徵收,但是實際上,49%的土地是遭到強制徵收的。 The Navy took the excuse that all residents had received their deposit amounts, and claimed that the lands were not expropriated forcibly, but in fact, 49% of the lands were expropriated forcibly. 因為海軍對地主表示「若不領走供託金,就必須付罰金」,相關法律知識不足的村民們只能摸摸鼻子領走供託金。 Since the Navy told the landlords “if you do not accept the deposit amount, you will have to pay the penalty”, the villagers with the lack of legal knowledge could only receive deposit such amount without any other option. 2009年起,江汀村居民在「䃓澰泌(Gureombi)」岩石上,搭建了示威帳篷,開始了長期抗戰。 Since 2009, residents of Gangjeong Village rallied their tents for a protest on the Gureombi Rock and started their long-term struggling. 每天在「䃓澰泌(Gureombi)」岩石上的帳篷料理用餐,晚上睡在帳篷。時間流逝,除了村民之外的許多外地人也不遠千里而來,為了共同守護這塊岩石。 They cooked and had meals in the tents on Gureombi Rock every day, as they also slept in the tents during night times. With time passing, many non-villagers came from places far away to defend this piece of rock together. 為了守護「䃓澰泌(Gureombi)」岩石的人愈來愈多,於是重新搭建了用餐的帳篷,人們稱此帳篷為「重德食堂」。 To defend the Gureombi Rock, more and more people came, so a new tent for having meals was built. People called that tent "Jungdeok Canteen." 在「重德食堂」任何人都可免費用餐,每天,有來自全國各地為了支援此抗爭的米與泡菜被送來「重德食堂」。 In “Jungdeok Canteen", anyone could come to eat free, and every day, free rice and kimchi were donated and sent to canteen from everywhere of the country to support this protest. 在「䃓澰泌(Gureombi)」岩石的示威者增加,江汀村協會於是重新搭建了可容納200人睡覺的帳篷。 Along with the protestors on Gureombi rock increased, the Gangjeong Village Association built a huge tent which could accommodate 200 people to sleep in. 此外,又搭建了名為重德寺的帳篷以及用來作展示與宣傳的帳篷。 In addition, they built a tent called the Jungdeok Temple for demonstration and publicity. 是以,江汀村民中有人開始把此地稱作重德村。 Therefore, among residents of Gangjeong Village, some people began to call the place “Jungdeok Village”. 但是,2011年9月2日,海軍剝奪了「䃓澰泌(Gureombi)」岩石上的一切事物,並設置了防止人們再進入「䃓澰泌(Gureombi)」岩石的高大圍籬。 On September 2, 2011, the Navy took away everything on Gureombi rocks and put tall fences to block people from coming in the Gureombi rock area. 但是曾存在於「䃓澰泌(Gureombi)」岩石上的「重德食堂」又被重新搭建於通往「重德」(「䃓澰泌(Gureombi)」岩石)的道路入口上。 Still, the “Jungdeok Canteen” once existed on Gureombi rock was rebuilt again on the entrance of road toward “Jungdeok”. 只有名稱改為「重德三岔路食堂」,在食堂做飯、用餐的人依舊。 Just its name was changed as "Jungdeok Road-Junction Canteen", with the same people who cooked and ate there. 以「重德三岔路食堂」為中心,周圍放置了7座鐵箱屋,代替了過去的帳篷。其內住著自願擔任食堂主廚的江汀村原住民以及為了和平而移居江汀村的人們。 With the centre "Jungdeok Road-Junction Canteen ", this place was surrounded by seven metal-sheet houses instead of tents in the past. Original residents of Gangjeong Village who volunteered to be the chef of the canteen and the people who immigrated to Gangjeong Village were living in here. 此地不只是示威帳篷,而是原住民與移住民共同生活的社區共同體,為爭取和平生存的居住地。 This place is not only a tent for demonstration tent, but a social community for original residents and immigrants to live together, but also a place for them to strive for the right to live in peace. 但是濟州道廳與海軍為了建設4線道道路,在2015年強制徵收了重德三岔路的土地,目前正面臨即將遭強制迫遷的情況。 But the Jeju Office and the Navy tried to build a four-lane road, and forcibly expropriated the land of Jungdeok-Junction in 2015, so currently, it faces a fate to be forcibly removed. 和平生存的權力再一次面臨被剝奪的危機。 Their right to live in peace was once again in danger of being taken away. 遭迫遷的民俗信仰與文化遺產 The folk beliefs and cultural heritages that were forcibly evicted. 江汀村有座叫做Saebyol堂的海神堂。 There was a Sea shrine called Saebyul shrine in Gangjeong Village. 海神堂是在海上討生活的海女以及船主祈禱請求今日也務必能無事地從事漁業活動的神堂,也是向海神表達感謝的聖地。 The Sea Shrine was a place where the sea women and ship owners prayed to the Sea God to secure their fishing works and showed their thankfulness to the Sea God. 但是去年因為海軍基地的道路工程,Saebyol堂的一部分遭到破壞。感受到神堂的危險處境之村民,正討論是否應該把神堂從危險地中遷離。 But due to the road construction for the naval base, a part of Saebyul shrine was destroyed. Therefore, villagers who sense the dangerous status for shrine are discussing if they should remove the shrine from the place of danger. 在濟州,因為許多理由而遷移位置的神堂雖有前例,但如此遭破壞而遷移的神堂則前所未聞。 In Jeju, though there were many cases that shrines were removed to the other places due to multiple reasons, thing like this the shrine was removed due to being destroyed, was something people never heard before. 江汀村從史前時代便有人居住,是被發現有濟州獨特居住型態的居住地域。 Since the prehistoric times, there were people living in Gangjeong Village, and it was an area with the unique living pattern in Jeju. 在濟州島,還從未在同一地點發掘出如此多樣時代的遺跡。 In Jeju Island, it has never been so many diverse remains of ages unearthed at the same place. 但是海軍與文化財廳將出土的遺跡遺物與其所含價值再次依原樣掩埋,並結束文化財之調查。 But the Navy and the Cultural Heritage Administration buried these unearthed remains along with their discovered values and ended the investigation of cultural properties. (二)過去決定濟州島作為軍事基地之島,並至今做為未解決之問題的【大靜邑阿德勒飛機場】 (B)In the past, Jeju Island was decided to be a military base, and also the “Daejeong-eup Alddreu Airfield”, which case with issue pending even till today. 1. 日帝所造成的迫遷 1. Forced-eviction caused by the Empire of Japan 阿德勒飛機場是在日帝殖民時期所建的日帝海軍飛機場。根據戰爭狀況,三度進行擴張工程。 Alddreu Airfield was an airport built for Japanese Army during the ruling of Empire of Japan. And there were three times of expansion construction according to the warfare during that period. 第一階段:1933年日帝與中國的戰爭在即,建設了約6萬坪(約20萬m²)規模的臨時著陸地。 Phase 1: In 1933, the war between the Empire of Japan and China was on the trigger, The Japanese army constructed about 60,000 cubic meters of temporary landing ground (approximately 200,000 m²). 第二階段:1936年中日戰爭正式爆發,1936年11月15日起1937年2月26日止,3個月又10天之內,強制徵收了廣達147,257坪(486,800 m²)的農地、牧地、村莊。 Phase 2: In 1936, the Sino-Japanese War broke out, so they forcibly expropriated farmlands, grazing lands and villages that were totally sized 147,257 cubic meters (486,800 m²) during November 15, 1936, to February 26, 1937, within three months and ten days. 當時從阿德勒機場起飛的日帝海軍轟炸機,對南京和上海進行了轟炸,由此,啟動了其後的南京大屠殺。 At that time, the bombing jets of Japanese Imperial Navy departed from Alddreu Airfield and processed the mission of bombing Nanjing and Shanghai, followed by the Nanjing Massacre. 第三階段:1944年,因太平洋戰爭,阿德勒飛機場再度進行擴張,從原本的20萬坪追加了60萬坪,就此成為整體規模達80萬坪的超大規模基地。 Phase 3: In 1944, because of the Pacific War, the Alddreu Airfield was once again expanded, the original 200,000 cubic meters were expanded to 600,000 cubic meters, and therefore the airport became a base with supersize more than 800,000 cubic meters. 為確保必要的用地,還強制遷移了既存的6個村莊。 To secure the necessary lands, they forcibly evict six villages that existed there. 阿德勒飛機場在日帝敗亡後,所有權從美軍政又轉到韓國政府手上,四三事件與韓國戰爭當時,都實際被用做軍事基地。 After the Empire of Japan surrendered, the ownership of Alddreu Airfield transferred from the US government to the South Korean government, and was used as a military base when 4.3 event and the Korean War broke out. 2. 不間斷的迫遷嘗試 2. Constant attempts for eviction 韓國政府從過去到現在,一直有計畫想將阿德勒飛機場軍事基地化。 Up until present, the South Korean government always plans to militarise the Alddreu Airfield. 1961年6月1日, 前總統朴正熙公開向美國表示:「有意將濟州島提供作美軍基地」。 On June 1, 1961, the former President Park Chung-hee expressed his opinion to the US government: "I intend to offer the Jeju Island as a base for the US military”. 實際上在1988年5月6日,阿德勒飛機場被指定作軍事基地保護地域後,發表了空軍基地建設計畫(當時美國在菲律賓克拉克的美空軍基地,正計畫移轉至其他亞洲地區)。 In fact, on May 6, 1988, after the Alddreu Airfield was designated as a reservation area for the military base, the construction project of air base was published (at the time the US Clark Air Base in the Philippines was planned to be transferred to the other places in Asia). 但是因當地居民強烈的反抗而告吹。 However, this also failed due to the strong opposition by residents. 2009年4月27日,濟州道政府與國防部以及國土海洋部締結了濟州海軍基地(官方名稱為「民軍複合觀光美港」)建設關聯的合約書(MOU)。 On April 27, 2009, the Jeju government, Department of Defense and the Ministry of Land signed an MOU related to the construction of Jeju Naval Base (official name “Civil & Military Multifunctional Port for Tourism”). 當時,大靜邑地區居民期待,長期以來由國防部不當所有的阿德勒飛機場占地,至少能回歸給濟州道政府,並許可能為地方社會加以利用。 At that time, residents of Jing Yi region expected the land for Alddreu Airfield occupied by the Department of Defense for a long time, could at least be returned to the Jeju government, and be used for the local society. 但結果並非以「返還」,而是以「使用」的條件達成了合約。且,濟州道要想使用阿德勒飛機場,就必須提供其他能夠引進空軍基地的替代用地才行。 (三)受未解決之案例與進行中之案例的影響而很有可能發生的【城山邑 第二機場】(空軍基地) (C)Affected by the unsolved cases and ongoing cases, it was very likely to build the [Seongsan-eup Second Airport] (airbase) (1)不斷的開發與對之加以利用的軍事主義 (1)Due to the continuous development and the militarism which took the advantage of it. 濟州道引入了相當多的觀光客 A considerable number of tourists has visited Jeju Island. 國土交通部總計了2015年一年間使用濟州機場的觀光客共2623萬人。 The Ministry of Land Infrastructure and Transportation figured out there were totally 26.23 million tourists used Jeju International Airport in 2015. 若考量持續增加的情勢,預計在2025年將增加到4179萬人。 Considering the status that keeps increasing, the number is expected to be 41.79 million tourists in 2025. 此外,因為引進企業資本與投資者,濟州島不動產價格正急速上升,開封熱潮風靡濟州各地。 Moreover, since the introduction of corporations and investors, the market of real estate is now rapidly going up in Jeju Island, the heat of reviewing houses are spread all around the Jeju. (2)空軍從很早以前便企圖在濟州島計畫建設空軍基地。 (2)The Air Force has planned to build an airbase in Jeju since a long time ago. 代表性的案例為:1988年曾試圖在大靜邑阿德勒飛機場占地上建設空軍基地,因居民的反對而幻滅。 One of the representative cases is: in 1988, the Air Force tried to build an airbase on the land of Daejeong-eup Alddreu Airfield, and finally failed for the opposing from residents. 又自2006年起,空軍在「國防中期計畫」中,僅將「濟州空軍戰略基地」的名稱改成「南方搜索救護部隊」,可見其仍懷有在濟州島上建設空軍基地的計畫。 And since 2006, in the medium-term plan of national defence, the Air Force only changed the name of “Jeju Air Force Strategic Base" into“ into "the South Rescue Team”, and we can see the plan to build airbase still was carried by the Air Force. (3)空軍正在努力提升濟州島地區人民對空軍的熟悉度。 (3)The Air Force is trying to enhance Jeju residents’ familiarity with the Air Force. 2008年,空軍擬定「航空宇宙博物館」的計畫,在2014年,濟州島「航空宇宙博物館」開幕。 In 2008, the Air Force planned the project of “Aerospace Museum", and in 2014, the "Aerospace Museum" in Jeju Island opened. 又,空軍在離濟州海軍基地不過3km距離的市民運動場上,開始每年舉辦「模型航空機大會兼濟州天空愛慶典」。 Moreover, the Air Force holds the“Aircraft Model Assembly & Jeju Ceremony for the Love of Sky” every year, on the public sports field just 3km away from the Jeju naval base. 幾年前起,開始在濟州海軍基地坐落的西歸浦市上空進行飛行表演。此大會的名稱為「 Space Challenge 」 Since many years ago, they started to process flight performance on the sky of Seogwipo City above the Jeju naval base. The name of this assembly is "Space Challenge". 2. 濟州島第二機場推進過程 2. The progress of Jeju Second Airport 2015年11月10日,國土海洋部發表將在西歸浦市城山邑地區推動建設「第二機場」。On November 10, 2015, the Ministry of Land and Ocean declared to promote the construction "the Second Airport" at the Seongsan-eup area of Seogwipo City. 75%的「第二機場」建設用地由城山邑溫平村所承擔,剩下的25%用地則分別由新山、水山、南山、古城村所承擔。 75% of lands required to build the "Second Airport" were to be afforded by the Wenping Village, Seongsan-eup and the rest 25% were to be respectively afforded by the Xin Mountain, Shui Mountain, Nan Mountain and Gouchen Village. 2015年11月10日,當國土海洋部針對機場之建設作發表時,機場候補地區的居民才首次聽說此計畫。 On November 10, 2015, only until the Ministry of Land and Ocean released the construction of the airport, the residents living in lands as a candidate for the airport had heard about this plan for the first time. 濟州道廳藉口擔心不動產價格上升,因此完全未對相關村莊的居民進行意見收集與召開說明會。 The Jeju Office excused with their concerns for the rising real estate prices and did not collect opinions and hold an orientation for those residents living in relevant villages at all. 如同江汀村引進海軍基地的過程,民主程序再次被忽視,因金錢與權力吞食了村莊的惡性循環接連發生。 As the progress of introducing Gangjeong Village, the democratic procedure was once again neglected, and the game of money and power swallowed the villages once by once, as a vicious cycle. 濟州道廳正同時推進第二機場與機場周邊都市的建設計畫。 At the same time, the Jeju Office was promoting the plan of Second Airport and urban areas around the airport. 因第二機場建設,農地與村莊陷入整體消失的危機。 Due to the construction of a Second Airport, farmlands and villages faced the crisis to be disappeared completely. 即便獲得房屋以及土地的補償金,在不動產價格暴漲中的濟州島現況下,想用補償金來找尋替代用地,在現實層面上很困難。 Even the residents were paid the compensation for houses and lands, under the current status of rapidly rising real-estate prices in Jeju Island, it is very hard to use compensation to seek the alternative land in the real aspect. 持續的分裂與衝突 The continuous divisions and conflicts 第二機場建設問題又造成了其他分裂與衝突。 The problem of constructing the Second Airport caused the divisions and conflicts again. 在村內,已經可看到因對第二機場的立場差異造成的分裂局勢。 In this village, you can see the secession caused by the different opinions for the Second Airport. 不僅如此,因為濟州島50%以上的民意認同第二機場的必要性,若城山邑地區的計畫破滅,便很可能在其他地區推動此機場建設計畫。 Moreover, since more than 50% of residents in Jeju Island agreed with the necessity of the Second Airport, the plan of Seongsan-eup region failed, and it is likely to motivate the plan of constructing this airport in other regions. 此情況很可能造成地域社會間的矛盾。 This situation is likely to cause conflicts among the local communities. 實際上,第二機場候補地的居民中,有部分居民主張應該在城山邑的靜石飛機場(企業營運的飛行訓練場)或者大靜邑的阿德勒飛機場用地上建設新機場。 In fact, among residents of the candidate land of Second Airport, some of them advocated that the airport should be built on the Seongsan-eup ( a flight training field operated by business) or on the lands of Daejeong-eup Alddreu Airfield.
1. 因為引進海軍基地的不當決策過程與「䃓澰泌(Gureombi)」岩石之破壞,造成在所有領域(例如:經濟、文化、自然、社區共同體、健康等)受影響的江汀村居民人口數:2007年引進海軍基地當時人口為1,700餘人/2016年2月,濟州海軍基地完工當時人口數為2,000餘人。 The population living in all relevant fields (such as economy, culture, nature, community, health, etc.) of Gangjeong Village are affected by the unjust introduction of naval base and the destruction of Gureombi rocks: In 2007, the population in naval base in the year of introduction was 1,700 people. And in February 2016, the population was 2,000 people when the construction of Jeju Naval Base was completed. 2. 因濟州海軍基地建設案本身受到社會經濟之影響的濟州島民人數:65萬(2016年) The population of residents on Jeju Island that were affected by the Jeju naval base construction both socially and economically was: 650,000 people in 2016. 3. 因濟州海軍基地建設,受到其國際軍事、外交影響的東亞人數:最少20億人。 The population in East Asia that was affected by the global military and diplomacy due to the Jeju naval base construction were: at least 2,000 million people. 4. 日帝時代因阿德勒飛機場建設受影響的濟州島民人數:20多萬人(1930年)。 The population affected by the Alddreu Airfield built during the age under the ruling of the Empire of Japan was: 20 million people (1930). 5. 日帝時代受到從阿德勒飛機場起飛之轟炸機影響的中國人數:最少113萬多人(南京大屠殺當時)。 The population affected by the bombing of fighter jets took off from Alddreu Airfield during the days under Empire of Japan was: at least 1.13 million people. (during the time of Nanjing Massacre). 6. 光復後,因繼續維持阿德勒飛機場而受影響的濟州島民人數:30多萬人(1947年4.3屠殺當時)。 After the recovery, the population in Jeju affected due to the continuation of maintaining Alddreu Airfield was: 30 million people (at the time when 1947 4.3 event happened) 7. 因濟州第二機場建設發表受影響的濟州島民人數共:63萬多人。 The population affected by the construction of Second Airport in Jeju was about 630,000 people in total. The population affected by the military training and culture, including children and teenagers was: more than 100 people. 因江汀村內導入軍事訓練與軍事文化而受影響的江汀村孩童與青少年人數:100餘名 - 1. 因為引進海軍基地的不當決策過程與「䃓澰泌(Gureombi)」岩石之破壞,造成在所有領域(例如:經濟、文化、自然、社區共同體、健康等)受影響的江汀村居民人口數:2007年引進海軍基地當時人口為1,700餘人/2016年2月,濟州海軍基地完工當時人口數為2,000餘人。 The population living in all relevant fields (such as economy, culture, nature, community, health, etc.) of Gangjeong Village are affected by the unjust introduction of naval base and the destruction of Gureombi rocks: In 2007, the population in naval base in the year of introduction was 1,700 people. And in February 2016, the population was 2,000 people when the construction of Jeju Naval Base was completed. 2. 因濟州海軍基地建設案本身受到社會經濟之影響的濟州島民人數:65萬(2016年) The population of residents on Jeju Island that were affected by the Jeju naval base construction both socially and economically was: 650,000 people in 2016. 3. 因濟州海軍基地建設,受到其國際軍事、外交影響的東亞人數:最少20億人。 The population in East Asia that was affected by the global military and diplomacy due to the Jeju naval base construction were: at least 2,000 million people. 4. 日帝時代因阿德勒飛機場建設受影響的濟州島民人數:20多萬人(1930年)。 The population affected by the Alddreu Airfield built during the age under the ruling of the Empire of Japan was: 20 million people (1930). 5. 日帝時代受到從阿德勒飛機場起飛之轟炸機影響的中國人數:最少113萬多人(南京大屠殺當時)。 The population affected by the bombing of fighter jets took off from Alddreu Airfield during the days under Empire of Japan was: at least 1.13 million people. (during the time of Nanjing Massacre). 6. 光復後,因繼續維持阿德勒飛機場而受影響的濟州島民人數:30多萬人(1947年4.3屠殺當時)。 After the recovery, the population in Jeju affected due to the continuation of maintaining Alddreu Airfield was: 30 million people (at the time when 1947 4.3 event happened) 7. 因濟州第二機場建設發表受影響的濟州島民人數共:63萬多人。 The population affected by the construction of Second Airport in Jeju was about 630,000 people in total. The population affected by the military training and culture, including children and teenagers was: more than 100 people. 因江汀村內導入軍事訓練與軍事文化而受影響的江汀村孩童與青少年人數:100餘名
1. Official (1) 因日帝的帝國主義與軍國主義,建成了阿德勒飛機場。Due to the imperialism and militarism of Empire of Japan, the Alddreu Airfield was built. (2) 意圖將濟州島作為軍事要衝地使用的美國(與中國的霸權競爭)與韓國政府的計畫(空軍基地建設),使得大靜邑阿德勒飛機場土地未能被返還。The the United States that intended to use Jeju Island as a military hub (at the time competing of military with China) planned with the Korean government (for airbase construction), and let the lands Jing Yi Alddreu Airfield remained unreturned. (3) 為實現海軍的「大洋海軍政策」,建設了濟州海軍基地。 To make the Navy’s plan "Policy of Building the Navy of Great Ocean", they constructed the Jeju naval base. 海軍主張透過濟州海軍基地,將保護南方貿易航路不受海盜侵擾,並解決領土紛爭作目標。 Navy advocated that the functions of Jeju naval base aimed to protect the trading routes of the south against pirates’ bothering and to resolve the territorial dispute. (4) 韓國的國家安保理念比起法律和民主主義還要優先。 South Korea's concept on national security is something more prior than law and democracy. 引進江汀村海軍基地的投票、絕對保證地域的解除過程、紅腳螃蟹的移植、農地的強制徵收、製造犯罪者、人權侵害等都是為了國家安保,而違反法律與倫理,來實現迫遷。 The introduction of voting for the naval base case in Gangjeong Village, the process of disarmament of absolute conservation zone, removal of red-footed crabs, forced expropriation of farmlands, creating criminals and infringement on human rights were all approaches that breached the laws and moralities for national security and the goal to achieve forced-eviction. (5) 負責濟州海軍基地建設工程的代表性企業是三星物產與大林產業兩大企業。 The icon corporations responsible for Jeju naval base construction are two big companies, the Samsung C&T Corporation and Daelim Corporation. 此外,三星物產與大林產業也是製造軍事武器的國防企業。 Also, the Samsung C & T and Daelim were also companies serving the national defence purpose, as they manufacture military weapons. 兩大企業在濟州海軍基地工程過程中,留下數不清的違法案例。 The two companies left over countless illegal cases during the process of constructing Jeju naval base. 但是,韓國的法律與行政卻無力對企業的違法工事加以管制或懲罰。However, the legal and administrative systems in Korea had no manner to restrict or punish the illegal cases for these companies. (6) 美國的重返亞洲政策讓亞洲太平洋整體,特別是島嶼地區受到軍事性的影響。 The United States’ policy to return to Asia makes the Asia-Pacific as whole, especially island regions impacted by the military developments. 握有韓國的軍事作戰控制權的美國很有可能將濟州海軍基地用作與中國的霸權競爭中。 The US, with the power to control all military actions of South Korea, is likely to use the naval base on Jeju Island in the hegemony competition with China. (7) 環繞島嶼的領土與國境紛爭,使亞太地區整體的國境之島地域(不僅僅是濟州海軍基地),面臨軍事基地化之情況。The dispute of territory and border surrounding the island, makes all islands belonging to borders of nations in Asia-Pacific region face the militarization. (8) 濟州島觀光客暴增,更加深了第二機場的必要性。The boom of tourists coming to Jeju Island deepened the necessity for the Second Airport. 非官方 1. Unofficial 根據濟州大學社會學系Cho, SungYun教授說法:「海軍與其說是為了國家安保建設濟州海軍基地,倒不如說是為了海軍組織的擴張。」According to Professor Cho, SunghYun from the Department of Sociology, Jeju National University: "Rather than claiming that the Navy built the Jeju naval base for national security, it would be more acurate to say it is for the expansion of the naval organisations." 選舉之結果也成為迫遷的理由。 The results of presidential election also became a reason for eviction. 在2012年總統選舉中當選的朴槿惠總統說了要把濟州島建設為第二個夏威夷之後,海軍基地工程推進方式變得以更加高壓與違法的方式進行。 After the President Park Geun-Hye elected in 2012 promised to construct the Jeju Island as the second Hawaii, the progress of construction for naval base became more oppressive and illegal than ever. 軍事方面依賴美國,經濟方面依賴中國的濟州島,為了同時獲得兩方面的效果,而將濟州海軍基地的官方名稱取作「民軍複合觀光美港」。 The Jeju Island that depends on the US for its military aspect, and on China for its economic aspect is wishing to acquire both benefits from the two countries. Therefore, the official name of Jeju naval base is the " Civil-Military Multifunctional Port for Tourism." 又,第二機場的主要建設理由也是因為中國觀光客激增,第二機場未來被建設為民軍複合型的可能性相當高。 Also, the main reason for constructing the Second Airport was also because of the boom of Chinese tourists, so the likelihood of the Second Airport to be rebuilt as an airport of multiple compounds for both the civil and military use in the future is very high.
The undesirable underlying assets entail the potential to be ‘processing’ into liquidable air rights commodity and trade in the privately unregulated market. 1933年,為準備與中國的戰爭,建設阿德勒飛機場(約6萬坪)。 In 1933, for the military preparation of the war with China, the government constructed the Alddreu Airfield (about 60,000 pings). (p.s. a ping is approximately 3.3 square meters) 1936年,與中國的戰爭在即,飛機場擴張。(又擴張了147,257坪,基地面積約達20萬坪) In 1936, the war with China was just about to happen, and the airport was expanded. (And the expansion was 147,257 pings, as the total area of the base reached about 200,000 pings) 1937年中日戰爭爆發,從阿德勒飛機場起飛的轟炸機轟炸中國南京等重要都市。 In 1937, the Sino-Japanese war broke out, and the bombers took off from the Alddreu Airfield bombed few important cities such as Nanjing. (從濟州島發起的空襲共36回,一年內600架飛機出動,投下的炸彈總計300頓,南京的許多市民因此死傷) The air strikes launched by the jets from Jeju Island were totally 36 times, and 600 aircrafts had been dispatched within a year, as the bombs dropped bombs weighed 300 tonnes, and caused many casualties of citizens in Nanjing City 1941年,太平洋戰爭後,為了守護日帝的本土,樹立了決號作戰。阿德勒飛機場擴張到80萬坪。 In 1941, after the Pacific War, to defend the homeland of Japan Empire, the “Operation Resolution” was set up. The Alddreu Airfield expanded to 800,000 pings. 1945年太平洋戰爭結束後,美軍政接收阿德勒飛機場。 After the Pacific War in 1945 had come to an end, the US military took over the Alddreu Airfield. 1948年~1953年,濟州4.3事件發生,阿德勒機場被當作為討伐武裝隊的國防警備隊第九連隊之基地使用。 The Alddreu Airfield was used as a base for Division 9, National Guard to crusade against the armed rebels during the the Jeju 4.3 event was happening between 1948-1953. 1953年~2006年美軍使用阿德勒飛機場鄰近的慕瑟峰為雷達基地。 During 1953 to 2006, the US military used Musi peak nearby the Alddreu Airfield as their radar base. 1969年,前總統朴正熙向美國提議在濟州島建設空軍基地和美軍基地。 In 1969, the former President Park Chung-hee proposed to the United States to construct airbase and US military base in Jeju Island. 1985年,建設交通部「濟州島綜合開發計畫」(1985年~1991年)將松岳山一帶(包括阿德勒飛機場占地)指定為觀光地區。 In 1985, the "Jeju Island Integrated Development Plan" (1985 to 1991) by the Ministry of Construction and Transportation designated the region of Mt. Songaksan (including the Alddreu Airfield) to be a tourist area. 1987年,前總統盧泰愚作為總統候選人時,訂下了將松岳山地域的國有地(阿德勒飛機場占地)出售給當地地區居民的公約。 In 1987, the former President Roh Tae-woo, while was still the presidential candidate, made a public agreement to sell the state-owned lands around Mt. Songaksan region (the occupied land of Alddreu Airfield) to the residents. 1988年5月6日,國防部通報將阿德勒飛機場所在的南濟州郡大靜邑松岳山一帶指定為軍事設施保護區域後,發表空軍基地建設計畫。 On May 6, 1988 after the Ministry of National Defence designated the Mt. Songaksan region over Daejeong-eup in Southern Jeju Province, where the Alddreu Airfield was located to be the reservation area of military facilities, the airbase construction program was released. 1989年2月,因當地地區居民的反對,松岳山空軍基地建設計畫告吹。 In February 1989, due to the opposition from residents, the airbase construction program aimed at Mt. Songaksan failed. 1989年3月18日,前總統盧泰愚發表「要在濟州島建設第二國際機場,並將此機場作為民軍共同使用,目前正與韓國開發研究院與相關機關研究中」。 On March 18, 1989, the former president Roh Tae-woo stated: “the Second International Airport will be built in Jeju Island for the uses of citizens and military. Currently, we are researching on this project with the Korea Development Institute". 2006年4月,空軍在2006~2010國防中期計畫中包含了濟州空軍戰略基地建設計畫(韓國日報報導) In April 2006, the medium-term plan of national defence for 2006 to 2010 included the plan to construct Jeju Airbase (reported by Hankook Ilbo). 2006年8月,空軍決定在濟州島推進搜救部隊之創設,並反映在2007~2011國防中期計畫中。(聯合新聞報導) In August 2006, the Air Force determined to push on the founding of Rescue Force and reported this in the medium-term plan of national defence during 2007 to 2011. (reported by United News) 2007年4月,江汀村人口1,900人中,僅87人參與的大會中,以拍手的方式通過了引進海軍基地之決定。 In April 2007, with only 87 out of 1900 villagers attended, the case of naval base in Gangjeong Village was passed with clapping hands of these people. 2007年5月14日,濟州道知事發表將於江汀村建設海軍基地。 On May 14, 2007, the government of Jeju announced to build the naval base in Gangjeong Village. 2007年5月18日,江汀村海軍基地反對對策委員會成立。 On May 18, 2007, the Strategy Committee of Anti-introduction of Naval Base for Gangjeong Village was founded. 2007年8月,725人參加的住民投票結果,94%的人反對海軍基地建設。 In August 2007, 725 residents participated in the voting and the result turned out to be 94% of people were opposing the naval base construction. 2008年7月,為了讓濟州島民眾知道海軍基地的問題,江汀村民開始進行繞行濟州島的和平遊行。 In July 2008, to let the people in Jeju Island understand the problem of naval base, villagers in Gangjeong Village started to rally peaceful protests. 2009年4月,濟州道與國防部、國土海洋部締結了建設相關的基本合約書(MOU),但彼此使用不同名稱(濟州道:民軍複合觀光美港 / 國防部:濟州海軍基地),締結了雙重合約。 In April 2009, Jeju Special Self-Governing Province signed an MOU for relevant constructions on the island with the Ministry of National Defence and Ministry of Land, Transport and Maritime, but they used different terms (Jeju Government: Civil-Military Multifunctional Tourist Port / MoND: Jeju Naval Base) to create the dual contracts. 在此合約書中,針對阿德勒飛機場用地,濟州道並非以「返還」,而是以「使用」的條件達成了合約。 In this contract, regarding the land used for Alddreu Airfield, Jeju Government did not use the term “returning” but the term “using” to achieve this agreement. 2009年12月,大國家黨主導的濟州道議會以流氓方式迅速通過解除江汀村前海(「䃓澰泌(Gureombi)」岩石)的絕對保證地域之指定。 In December 2009, the Jeju Council dominated by the Grand National Party rudely made a quick approvement dismantling the designation of absolute conservation zone of the front sea (Gureombi rock) of Gangjeong Village. 2011年3月,濟州道議會,表決取消絕對保證地域之解除,但是工程繼續被強行推進。 In March 2011, the Jeju Province Council voted to cancel the dismantlement of absolute conservation zone, but the construction was still forcibly carried on. 2011年8月,國會在野五黨海軍基地真相調查團: In August 2011, the fact-seeking group composed of five opposition parties in the Congress requested: 以國會未遵守附帶條件、憂慮生態界毀損、嚴重的程序瑕疵等理由,要求中斷工程、再檢討。 - The construction should be suspended and reviewed due to the reasons such as the Congress did not abide the additional condition, concerns for the damages to the ecosystem, and serious procedural flaws. 2011年8月前江汀村村長姜東均遭緊急逮捕、入獄。 In August 2011, the former chief of Gangjeong Village, Kang Dongjun was urgently arrested and imprisoned. 2011年9月,投入千餘名的公權力(警力),用以實施封鎖通往「䃓澰泌(Gureombi)」岩石的道路,設置圍牆之行政代執行。 In September 2011, thousands of enforcement staffs (polices) were involved in blocking the entrance of road toward Gureombi rocks, and set up walls with the administrative power. 2011年12月,國會刪除了2012年濟州海軍基地96%的預算。因設計謬誤,提出查證要求。In December 2012, the Congress cancelled 96% of the budget for Jeju naval base. Since the design was wrong, the survey was requested. 2012年國土研究院「濟州機場開發構想研究」的結果,提出了(1)將既存的機場予以擴張,或者(2)建設新機場兩種方案。 In 2012, based on the result of “Research on Developing Jeju Airport” by the Korea Research Institute for Human Settlements, it proposed two conclusions as below: (1) Expand the existing airport, or (2) Construct the new airport. 並分析現在的濟州機場在即將到來的2019年,將被2,330萬人的使用客所填滿而達到飽和狀態。(所謂的新機場是指封閉既存機場,建設全新的機場)And it also analysed the saturated status due to being filled with over 23.3 million passengers in the upcoming 2019, for Jeju International Airport. (the so-called new airport means to close the existing airport, and construct the new airport) 2012年3月,開始爆破「䃓澰泌(Gureombi)」岩石。 In March 2012, the government started to explode Gureombi rocks. 2012年3月,諾貝爾和平獎候選人英國和平活動家Angie Zelter因剪斷包圍「䃓澰泌(Gureombi)」岩石的鐵絲網之非暴力直接行動而被強制遣送出境。 In March 2012, the British candidate for Nobel Peace Prize, Angie Zelter was forcibly deported for his non-violent action that he cut down the wires surrounded the Gureombi rocks. 2012年5月,3位聯合國特別報告員針對在江汀村發生的人權侵害一事,向韓國政府提出公開質疑。 In May 2012, three UN Special Rapporteurs questioned the Korean Government for the violations of human rights happened in Gangjeong Village. 2012年9月,於世界自然保護會議(WCC)中提出關於海軍基地建設案的獨立環境影響評估再實施之要求決議案。 2012 In September 2009, they proposed the resolution case for asking the independent environmental assessment to be implemented again in the construction of the naval base in the World Conservation Conference (WCC). NGO方面壓倒性贊成,但是在韓國政府施加的外部壓力以及IUCN的偏頗營運下遭否決。 The case won supports from the NGOs overwhelmingly. However, the case was still rejected under the external pressure from the Korean Government and biassed operation of IUCN. 2012年9月,人權團體們發表了【濟州海軍基地建設過程中的江汀村人權侵害調查報告書】 In September 2009, human right groups published [Investigation Report on Human Rights Violation in Gangjeong Village for Jeju Naval Base Construction] 2013年10月,第18回釜山國際電影節江汀村紀錄片【生命之岩-風起】上映 In October 2009, the documentary film about Gangjeong Village, Gureombi - The Wind Is Blowing, was released at the 18th Pusan International Film Festival. 2013年11月,在普世教會協會(WCC)第10次大會中,針對濟州海軍基地建設的不當性提出公開聲明,要求「對抗亞太地區海洋的軍事化,守護和平!」 In November 2013, at the 10th General Assembly of WCC, the request for public statement of unjustness for constructing Jeju naval base was made, asking “Oppose against the militarization of Asia-Pacific regions, and guard the peace!" 2014年3月設立江汀村法律支援募款委員會。 In March 2014, the Legal Supports Fundraising Committee for Gangjeong Village was established. 2014年5月,活動家們拒絕支付關於海軍基地反對活動的不當罰金,選擇入獄。 In May 2014, the activists refused to pay the improper penalty for opposition activities and chose to be imprisoned. 2014年6月,江汀村大會討論是否在江汀村內引進軍官舍,結果98%的居民反對。 In June 2014, the Gangjeong Village Assembly was discussing whether to introduce the residences for military officers, and it turned out the 98% of residents opposed it. 2014年10月,無視於海軍、居民的反對,軍官舍工程開工。 In October 2014, with ignorance and opposition from the Navy and residents, the residences for military officers started to be constructed. 2014年10月22日,濟州道政府於22日上午在道廳大禮堂上,創立了濟州機場基礎設施擴大泛島民促進協議會,並開始了對於濟州機場基礎設施擴充案的相關島民說明會,開始蒐集意見。 On October 22, 2014, Jeju Government established the Jeju Airport Infrastructures Expansion for Pan Islander Promotion Association and started collecting opinions in the relevant orientations for islanders to understand about airport infrastructures expansion. 2015年1月,為拆除反對軍官舍建設之示威帳篷,公權力投入,進行行政代執行。 In January 2015, to dismantle protestors’ tents for opposing the construction of residences for military officers, the government authority involved and the administrative power made execution. 2015年2月,第二次強制拆除反對海軍軍官舍建立之示威帳篷。 In February 2015, the government processed the second time of forcibly dismantling the tents of demonstrators for constructing residences of military officers. 2015年8月3日,濟州海軍基地建設反對運動3000日。 The 3000th days of anti-Jeju naval base construction was reached on August 3, 2015. 2015年11月10日,濟州機場基礎建設擴充事前妥當性檢討,因為擔心濟州機場空洞化,提出濟州第二機場建設替代方案。城山邑溫平里、新山里一帶成為候補地。 On Nov 10, 2015, the propriety review of expanding construction of Jeju Airport Infrastructures was completed, and due to the concerns about hollowing out Jeju International Airport region, the Second Airport construction alternative project was proposed. Moreover, Wenping Town, Seongsan-eup region, Xinsan Town became the candidate lands. 2016年2月26日,濟州海軍基地竣工典禮。 On Feb 26, 2016, the ceremony for completed construction of Jeju Naval base was held. 2016年2月26日,宣布江汀村為生命和平文化村莊。 On Feb 26, 2016, Gangjeong Village was announced to be the village of life and peace. 2016年3月26日,海軍向江汀村居民、和平活動家以及5個團體提出34億5千萬元的求償權申請。 On March 26, 2016, the Navy proposed an application of a claim for 3.45 billion dollars as compensation to residents of Gangjeong Village, peace activists and five groups. 2016年4月28日,海軍在江汀村初等學校前十字路口上,提槍進行軍事訓練。 On April 28, 2016, the Navy processed military training with soldiers holding guns at the intersection in front of the Junior High School of Gangjeong Village. 2016年5月17日,海軍與濟州道廳預告將對中德三岔路食堂與7座鐵箱屋進行行政代執行。 On May 17, 2016, the Navy and Jeju Government predicted to process the administrative execution onto the Jungdeok Samgeori (intersection) Canteen and the seven metal-sheet houses.
1. 消失的正義 The disappeared Justice (1) 日帝所奪去的阿德勒飛機場之土地,所有權交給了美軍,後又交給了韓國國防部。 The lands taken away by the Empire of Japan was given to the US military, and the ownership was later transferred to the Ministry of Defense, South Korea Government. 此過程從未詢問土地與村莊遭剝奪的村民之意見,村民們再度受剝奪。During this process, the residents who lived in these lands and villages were never asked for opinions, and they were deprived again. 一直在改變的只是實施迫遷、掠奪的主體。 What really keeps changing was the subject that implements the forcible eviction and looting. (2) 江汀村提出的所有關於濟州海軍基地的訴訟中,司法部以「江汀村不具有原告的資格」或者所謂的「國家事業」之理由,而下了敗訴的裁決。Among all lawsuits about Jeju naval base proposed by the Gangjeong Village, the Ministry of Justice adjudged them all to lose the case with the reasons such as "Gangjeong Village does not own the qualification to be a prosecutor" or “it is a national property”. 現在的情況是,海軍甚至向江汀村提出針對妨礙工程所造成的損失賠償之申請。 And the current status is that, the Navy even applied for claiming damages caused by villagers’ interruption on construction. 因這些事件,人們對法律與國家的信任崩毀,甚至為了不繳交罰金而寧可選擇以坐牢的方式進行不服從抗爭運動。 Due to these incidents, people's trust in the law and the country collapsed, and they even chose to be imprisoned, rather than paying the compensation as a civil disobedience movement. 2. 衝突與分裂 Conflict and secession (1) 在濟州島達到軍事化高峰的日帝時代與解放後起身對抗國家的人們不是被當作敵人,就是被當作赤色分子而遭殺害,是為那時代的正義。 In the age with the peak of militarization, colonial era under Japan Empire, or the years after liberation, people who stood up and turned against the country, were either treated as enemies or killed with being regarded as the communists, as the justice for those ages. 現在也無所改變。 And nothing changes even till now. 海軍組織保守團體,在江汀村舉行「剷除從北左派」活動。保守媒體一直以來扮演孤立江汀村的角色。 One of the conservative groups under the Navy, held the activity of "eradicating the leftist from northern places" And the conservative media has always been playing their roles to isolate these residents and Gangjeong Village. (2) 針對國家事業分裂成贊成與反對兩派。國家未與當事者對話,就進行了國家事業。 In regard of the aspect of national enterprise, they were divided into two groups including members of supports and oppositions. The government indeed had not talked with the people, before conducting what they call the procedures for a national property. 江汀村的社區共同體已經也因為贊成與反對之意見而使得家族、親戚、鄰居分裂。 The community of Gangjeong Village was also in secession among families, relatives and neighbours due to the opinions for supports and oppositions. 其他地區的人說,江汀村應該要為國家犧牲。 The people living in the other places said the Gangjeong Village should sacrifice for the country. 社會對於村子與地區的苦痛,變得愈來愈沒有同理心。 The society gradually losses empathy for the pains those villagers and the land have suffered. 3. 整個濟州島是「將消失的村莊」 The entire Jeju Island as a "vanishing village" 因為阿德勒飛機場的建設,至少有6個村莊的村民被強制移居。 Due to the Alddreu Airfield construction, there are residents from at least six villages were forced to be evacuated. 濟州4.3事件時,被火燒毀、原住民的沒有重返家園而消失的村子數過百。When Jeju 4.3 event happened, villages burned or without original residents to return and disappeared were over several hundred. 江汀村也因海軍基地的侵入而失去了「䃓澰泌(Gureombi)」岩石與大海。 Gangjeong Village also lost the also due to the Gureombi rock and ocean due to the invasion of the naval base. 若軍事文化與資本不停地被引入村莊,江汀村的固有文化也將漸漸消失。 If the military culture and capital keep being introduced to the village, the inherent culture in Gangjeong Village will also gradually disappear. 一直以來過著和平生活的城山邑溫平、南山、新山、首山、古城村,則因為第二機場之建恐將成為「消失的村子」。 Since always, the villages in Wenping Village, Seongsan-eup region, Nangsan, Xinsan, Shuosan and Guocheng Village, will be disappearing villages due to the construction of the Second Airport. 4. 心理創傷 Psychological Trauma 因軍事基地之建設,讓許多人經歷了暴力。 Due to the construction of military base, many people experienced violence. 雖然江汀村村民不間斷地知會國家與地方政府選址過程之問題,沒有人予以聆聽。 Though residents from Gangjeong Village constantly informed the central and local governments for the issues happened during the residence picking, no one seems to listen. 為阻止不法工事而採取行動的人們,全都成了犯罪者。 People who took actions to stop those illegal constructions all became criminals. 2009年西歸浦報社以110名村民為對象,實施了精神健康之實情調查之結果: In 2009, the Seogwipo Newspaper conducted the survey on mental health to 110 villagers, and the results were below: 想自殺的村民占全部的40%以上,懷有敵對感的村民達到57%。 The villagers who wanted to commit suicide accounted for 40%, and residents bearing the sense of hostility reached 57%. 5. 自然環境破壞 The destruction of natural environment 因海軍基地工事,使江汀村的自然環境遭到相當嚴重的破壞。 Due to the naval base construction, the natural environment in Gangjeong Village was seriously damaged. 6. 農業受害 Agriculture Damages. 濟州海軍基地建設過程中,海軍與建商製造了嚴重汙染。特別是因揚塵汙染,使附近的水果農業受害。 During the process of Jeju naval base construction, the Navy and builders created lots of serious pollutions. Especially, due to the dust pollution, the nearby fruit agriculture was harmed. 7. 村莊自治權侵害危機 Crisis of villagers’ autonomy being infringed 江汀村的自治權正受到威脅。 The autonomy of Gangjeong village has been threatened. 進行海軍基地反對運動的村長Cho, KyungChul,在2015年12月16日江汀村村長選舉中, 許多在海軍基地工地現場工作的移住民們也參與了投票, The chief of the village, Cho, Kyung Chul, who participated in the anti-naval base movement, was the candidate of the chief election in Gangjeong Village on December 16, 2015, and many immigrants who worked at the construction spot of the naval base also went to vote. 幸好Cho, KyungChul村長以18票的差異連任成功,是以至少2017年12月止,江汀村的海軍基地反對運動以及創造生命和平文化村運動能夠持續進行。 Fortunately, Cho, Kyung Chul was re-elected again to be the mayor with only the distance of 18 votes, therefore at least since the December 2017, the anti-naval base movement in Gangjeong Village and action to make a village of life and peace can continue. 但是持續引入的外部人士與軍人,恐將奪去江汀村原住民的自治權,而出現海軍基地反對運動能否持續的憂慮。 However, the continuous introduction of outsiders and soldiers are likely to deprive the autonomy of original residents in Gangjeong Village. It also raised the concerns of whether the anti-naval base moment could continue. 8. 人權侵害 Human rights violations 投入江汀村的公權力讓人聯想到濟洲4.3事件。 The governing power involved in Gangjeong Village made people associated with the Jeju 4.3 event. 在被從「䃓澰泌(Gureombi)」岩石上迫遷前,從2011年8月14日到2012年8月31日之間,共投入了12萬8402名警力到江汀村。 Before being evicted from the Gureombi rock, during August 14, 2011 to August 31, 2012, totally 128,402 police were involved in Gangjeong Village. 對以和平的方法阻止工程進行的人們的人權侵害程度嚴重。 The level of human rights violations upon people who tried to stop construction with peaceful approaches was severe. 對為了參加濟州海軍基地建設反對運動的外國人之拒絕入境案例共26件,另有2件強制遣送出境的案例。 Cases of stopping foreigners from coming to join the anti-Jeju naval base movement were 26, and the in other 2 cases, the foreigners were even forcibly deported. 直到2016年5月為止,累積的被捕人數共697人,入獄者共57名(包括拒付罰金者),遭起訴者共601名,江汀村需支付的累積罰金總額達到了4億韓元。Until May 2016, there were totally 697 people arrested, 57 people were imprisoned (including those who refused to pay fines), 601 people were indicted, and the total cumulative penalty that Gangjeong Village has to pay reached 400 million Korean dollars. 9. 財產權侵害(海軍的求償權申請訴訟) Infringement of property rights (claims applied by the Navy) 海軍在2016年3月28日,向濟州江汀村居民、神職人員等共116人,與包含江汀村協會在內的5個團體為對象,提出了總額超過34億韓元的求償權申請。 On March 28, 2016, the Navy proposed a claim of over 3.4 billion Korean dollars to residents of Gangjeong Village, clergies, as totally 116 people, and five groups including Gangjeong Village Association. 海軍的主張是,因村民以及神職人員對濟州海軍基地工程的妨礙,使得工程進度被延遲,因而要求賠償此部分的損失金額。 Navy's position was that since the interruption from villagers and clergies onto the Jeju naval base construction, the construction progress was delayed, and the loss had to be paid. 這只是建商三星物產向國防部要求的受害額273億韓元中的一部份,此外,同為建商的大林產業也正準備對其損失金額提出申請。 This is only a partial claims of 27.3 billion Korean dollars proposed by the Samsung C&T to the Department of Defense as the builder. Also, the construction company Daelim is also preparing to apply the claim for its loss. 國家以國家事業為由,以行政機關的立場,透過強制執行之手段,根據土地法合法地剝奪國民的私有財產。而此次求償權事件則是,國家將自己的位置降到「個人」,實行求償權,要求居民交出剩下的財產,以作為損害賠償金。 With the excuse of national enterprise, the state utilises its position as an administrative authority and legally deprived national's private property in the name of Land Act. Besides, the event of claiming compensation is that the state downplays itself on a position as an individual, who proceeds the right to claim and request residents surrendering their remained property to compensation the loss of state. 必須繳交4億元罰金的江汀村協會面臨必須出售江汀村會館的狀況。 The Gangjeong Village Association faced a condition that it needed to sell the Gangjeong Village Hal to pay up the 400 million Korean dollars fine. 但是,因為海軍的求償權申請訴訟,江汀村協會面臨即便賣了江汀村會館,也無法支付此損害賠償的狀況。 But, due to the Navy's application for claims, even the Gangjeong Village Association has sold the Gangjeong Village Hall, it would not be able to pay up the compensation. 因此,江汀村協會在海軍基地門前,搭建了帳棚式的江汀村會館,進行長期的示威。 Therefore, the Gangjeong Village Association built a tent-type Gangjeong Village Hall in front of the naval base as to run a long-term demonstration. 濟州海軍基地建設深化中國與美國的霸權競爭之惡性循環。 The construction of Jeju Naval Base has deteriorated the vicious cycle of hegemonic competition between China and the US. 為應對美國的重返亞洲、太平洋策略,中國也開始仿效美國在外國建立軍事基地。 In response to the United States’ policy to return to Asia-Pacific region, China also began to build military bases in foreign countries, as following the steps of the United States. 美國與中國的軍事基地建設造成大規模且快速的環境與文化之破壞。 The construction of military bases in the US and China caused massive and rapid destructions on the environment and culture. 海洋國境紛爭趨於嚴重。 Marine border disputes are getting more and more serious.
1) 江汀村濟州海軍基地 Jeju naval base in Gangjeong Village 2) 國防部、海軍、情報員、警察、檢察官、濟州特別自治道、西歸浦市、文化財廳、榮山江流域環境廳、新聞媒體、大企業(三星、大林)、美國。Department of Defense, the Navy, agents, policeS, prosecutors, Jeju Province, Seogwipo City, Cultural Property Office, the Environment Agency of Yeongsan Basin, news media, big conglomerates (Samsung and Daelim), the United States. 3) 大靜邑阿德勒飛機場 Daejeong-eup Alddreu Airfield 4) 日本帝國、美國、韓國國防部。 Empire of Japan, the US, the Ministry of Defense, South Korean Government. 5) 城山邑第二機場 The Second Airport of Seongsan-eup

Support, measures taken and follow up

sì (yes: which?)
The National Measure Committee to Carry Out the Island of Peace (the united organization composed of t civic groups jointly from the nation) 為阻止軍事基地與實現和平之島的泛島民對策委員會(濟州地區的市民團體聯合) The Pan-islanders Measure Committee to Stop Military Base and Implement the Island of Peace (civic groups from Jeju region assembled jointly) 全國天主教連帶 National Catholic Alliance 反對太空之武器與核電的全球網絡(美國) Global Network Against Weapons and Nuclear Power in Space (USA) 天主教工作者(美國) Catholic Workers (USA) 沖繩韓國民眾連帶(沖繩) Alliance of South Koreans in Okinawa (Okinawa) 為和平之島嶼間的連帶(台灣、沖繩、濟州) Alliance of Islands for Peace (Taiwan, Okinawa, Jeju)
1. 江汀村濟州海軍基地 Gangjeong Village Jeju Naval Base. 江汀村臨時大會、聯署運動、住民投票 Provisional Assembly in Gangjeong Village, signature movement, voting by residents. 2015年2月23日,江汀村老人會、婦女會、青年會營運委員會透過記者會提出「關於在江汀村內建立軍官舍相關事務,請濟州道政府與海軍以住民投票方式來詢問江汀村村民的意見」之要求。 On Feb 23, 2015, Gangjeong Village Elderly Associations, Women Association, YMCA Operating Committee proposed the request to “Jeju Government and Navy to let residents express their opinions by voting as to the relevant affairs about building residences for military offers in Gangjeong Village” through a press conference. 此要求未被接受,不顧居民的意願,軍官舍已建設完成。 This request was not accepted, and the wills of people were not cared, as the residences of military officers were completed. 江汀村村民們至始至終強調民主之程序。 The villagers of Gangjeong Village have been emphasising on the process of democracy since always. (2) 聲明書、記者會以及SNS Statement, press conference and SNS 過去,江汀村居民從未舉辦過記者會,在決定引進海軍基地後,居民們直接動手寫聲明書、開記者會,持續努力讓自己的聲音能夠傳出去。 In the past, residents of Gangjeong Village never have held a press conference. After the government decided to introduce the naval base, residents directly wrote the statements, held press conferences, and continuously tried their best efforts to be heard by the outside. 社群軟體(如Twitter, FB)將濟州海軍基地問題傳播到全國、全世界。 Social medias (like Twitter and FB) spread the issue of Jeju naval base to the whole country, and even the whole world. 來自全國、全世界各地的各方人馬聚集,共同從事反對江汀村海軍基地運動。 People come from countrywide and worldwide gathered together to join the opposition movement to the naval base in Gangjeong Village. (3) 生命和平大遊行 The Parade of Life and Peace 江汀村村民從2008年起,徒步繞行濟州島,以求讓濟州各地區知曉海軍基地之問題。 Since 2008, residents in Gangjeong Village have been walking across the Jeju Island to let everywhere on the island know about the issue of naval base. 目前,此徒步巡禮之名稱改成了生命和平大遊行。 Currently, the name of this pilgrimage on foot has been changed into the Parade of Life and Peace. 今年江汀村也正與地區社會共同籌備生命和平大遊行。 This year, Gangjeong Village is also preparing for the local society for another Parade of Life and Peace. 此遊行的名聲漸漸散布到世界,與濟州島一樣因軍事基地而受苦的其他島嶼地區(例如沖繩、與那國島、菲律賓、夏威夷、天寧島…)的民眾也共同參與。The fame of this parade gradually spreads to the whole world, and people living in those island regions that suffer in the military base issue like Jeju (e.g., Okinawa Yonaguni Island, the Philippines, Hawaii, Tinian ...), also participate in the activity. (4) 非暴力直接行動 Non-violent direct action 江汀村的海軍基地反對運動成長為和平運動的理由之一。 The growth of the anti-naval base movement in Gangjeong Village has become one of the reasons for the peace movement. 江汀村的口號之一「和平要用和平的手段來守護」是一種信念與希望。 One of slogans made by the Gangjeong Village is "to use peaceful ways to defend the land” as a belief and hope. 如果濟州海軍基地被利用於戰爭,很可能造成許多無辜的犧牲者,因此憂慮,即便只有一分、一秒也要延遲工程進行,江汀村村民至今持續的進行這樣的反抗活動。 If the Jeju naval base will be used in war, it is likely to cause many innocent victims. Therefore, the people will try their best to delay the construction, even only for one second, and people living in Gangjeong Village has continued for such resistance activities even till today. 對此,許多的市民與外國人都分享了其團結連帶的心意。 In this regard, many citizens and foreigners shared their wishes and regards of being united. 非暴力直接行動的例子如:將身體置身於意圖破壞「䃓澰泌(Gureombi)」岩石的挖土機之下; Examples of non-violent direct actions were: place their bodies under the shovels which are going to destroy the Gureombi rocks. 在國會已下達中止工程命令的情況下,阻擋仍強行進行工程的車輛;Under the circumstance that the Congress has issued a command to terminate the project, they will go to stop those vehicles still forcibly carrying out the construction. 對於不顧文化財廳的許可條件,在未設置汙染防止膜的情況下進行海上疏濬工程的駁船,登船攀爬至高處迫使工程中止; For those ships regardless of Cultural Property Office’s order on conditions of approval, which do not place pollution prevention film and process the dredge construction, they will climb on ships and to the high spot to make the construction interrupted. 摧毀圍繞「䃓澰泌(Gureombi)」岩石的圍牆與鐵絲網,重新進入「䃓澰泌(Gureombi)」岩石; They destroyed the walls and wires surrounding the Gureombi rocks and re-entered the Gureombi rock region. 為阻止我方的設施遭強制拆除、遷移,攀登上瞭望台; To keep our facilities from being forcibly removed and relocated, they will climb on the observation deck. 在海軍基地正門進行百拜冥想、祈禱活動;They process the meditations and prayers in front of the entrance of the naval base. 以人的鎖鏈的方式,延遲工程車輛運行;以獨木舟、游泳的方式進行海上示威…。 They become the chain of human to block the construction vehicles and protest on the sea by riding canoe or swimming. (5) 宗教活動與百拜冥想Religious activities and meditations 2011年6月,天主教濟州教區每週四開始在「䃓澰泌(Gureombi)」岩石上進行生命和平彌撒。 2011 In June 2009, Roman Catholic Diocese of Cheju on Thursdays beginning "䃓 trough secretion (Gureombi)" the rock mass peaceful life. 2011年9月2日,「䃓澰泌(Gureombi)」岩石週邊建起了圍牆,在無法進入「䃓澰泌(Gureombi)」岩石的狀況下,文正鉉神父從9月3日起,在基地工地正門對面開始了每日進行的街道上的彌撒。 On September 2, 2011, walls around Gureombi rocks were built, and people cannot get into the Gureombi rock region, therefore the priest Wen Chenhyun started processing the mass daily on streets in front of the base since September 3. 街道上的彌撒一邊阻擋了工地正門以及工程車輛的通行一邊進行。 The mass on the streets also blocked the entrance of the main entrance of construction site and vehicles. 因為生命和平彌撒,開啟了許多天主教信者與人民的連帶支持,使違法的海軍基地工程被延遲。 Due to the mass of peace, many Catholic believers and people joined to support them and delayed the illegal naval base construction. 2011年3月1日, 由曹溪宗的僧侶組織、一般市民所組成的生命和平巡禮團造訪江汀村。 On March 1 2011, the life and peace pilgrimage group led by Cao Xizhong’s monk organisation and regular citizens visited the Gangjeong Village. 生命和平巡禮團在衝突矛盾的中心地「䃓澰泌(Gureombi)」岩石上開始了所謂的生命和平百拜的跪拜冥想活動。 The life and peace pilgrimage group processed so-call meditation of life and peace right on the stop of conflict centre, the Gureombi rock. 生命和平百拜冥想是非暴力的實踐並包含了讓人覺悟到生命之珍貴的訊息,許多珍愛生命和平的人們,至今持續的參與此活動。 The life and peace meditation is the practice of non-violence actions, which includes the message to let people sense the preciousness of life, so many peace lovers keep coming to here to participate in this movement. 除了星期日之外,每日早晨7點,在海軍基地正門前固定進行。In addition to Sunday, every morning by 7:00, this will be held in front of the main entrance of the Naval base. (6) 舞蹈與歌 / 燭光晚會 Dances and songs / candlelight night ceremony 這是促使江汀村海軍基地反對運動能夠延續至今的力量之一。 It is one of the strengths to facilitate the anti-naval base moment in Gangjeong Village to continue till today. 每天生活在暴力以及珍貴事物遭剝奪的經驗當中,雖然也感到想放棄與挫折,因為充滿活力的舞蹈以及迴響於心中的歌曲而獲得安慰與治療。Though the people are experiencing lives of being threatened by violence, and precious things are being taken away, as sometimes people do feel to give up and depressed, however, with these energetic dances and songs which inspire their soul, they are comforted and healed. (7) 監視與紀錄 Monitoring and recording 從引進海軍基地的過程到建設過程,累積了數不清的不法案例與人權侵害案例。 Since the introduction of the naval base to the process of construction, they are countless cases of human rights violations left over. 江汀村協會在2011年組成了海軍基地不法工程監視團,持續監視與記錄了違法案例。 The Gangjeong Village Association assembled the Illegal Construction Monitoring Group at the Naval in 2011, to constantly monitor and record the illegal cases. 此紀錄作為證據資料,被用在法庭官司與國政監察等情況中。針對不法工程、環境破壞,以及人權侵害的監視,同時在陸上與海上進行。 With these record as evidence to be used at the courts and national governances, the supervision of the illegal construction, environmental damage, human rights violation are still ongoing on both ground and ocean fields. (8) 示威帳篷 Tents for demonstrations 示威帳篷雖然作為抗爭的象徵,但同時也是為了和平生存的場所。 While the tent is the symbol of protests, it also is the place for peaceful living. 從「䃓澰泌(Gureombi)」岩石上遭迫遷後,便在中德三岔路上,重新搭建了中德食堂與7座鐵箱屋,並以其為中心形成了社區共同體式的文化。 Since being forcibly evicted from the Gureombi rocks, people rebuilt the Zhong De Canteen and seven metal-sheet houses at the Jungdeok Samgeori (intersection) and formed up the social community culture surrounds it as the centre. 7座鐵箱屋是村民與為了和平而移居此地的移住民共同生活的地方。 The seven metal-sheet houses are where villagers and immigrants lived together to fight for peace. (9) 江汀村報紙 Gangjeong Village Daily News 從2011年起,為了宣傳江汀村海軍基地問題,開始每月發行江汀村韓文與英文報紙。 Since 2011, to advocate what happened in Gangjeong Village for the naval base issue, people started to issue and deliver the Gangjeong Village Daily News in Korean and English versions by month. 韓文報主要分享給江汀村村民與濟州道島民,英文報則每個月寄送給支持江汀村的外國人。 The Korean version shares information to residents in Gangjeong Village and Jeju Island, while the English version was sent to those foreigner supporters for movements in Gangjeong Village. 從2011年起,為了宣傳江汀村海軍基地問題,開始每月發行江汀村韓文與英文報紙。韓文報主要分享給江汀村村民與濟州道島民,英文報則每個月寄送給支持江汀村的外國人。 (10) 和平學校 School of Peace 2011年,訪問江汀村的和平活動家開始了江汀和平學校之活動。 In 2011, the peace activists who visited Gangjeong Village started their actions for schools of peace. 和平學校是透過江汀與濟州島來學習生命與和平的社會運動。不論男女老少都可參與。 和平學校,也時而進行舉標語示威、海上示威、非暴力直接行動等活動。 It was a movement to learn about life and peace through the cases of Gangjeong Village and Jeju Islands. Without the limits of genders or ages, anyone could participate in this movement. At the schools of peace, they also processed the demonstrations with slogans and actions on an ocean and non-violent ones. (11) 藝術活動 Artistic Activity 藝術活動是使江汀村海軍基地反對運動能夠成為大眾和平運動的重要活動。Artistic activities are the important parts to make the anti-naval base movement in Gangjeong Village became a public movement of pursuing peace. 藝術無界限與圍籬,不論何人都可簡單的表達與理解。包括: Art is something without boundaries and fences, so anyone can simply express their understanding. It includes: 在牆壁上作畫、在海軍基地圍牆上作畫、製作人偶與面具等共同活動,此外,包括「䃓澰泌(Gureombi)」岩石拓本、在設施物上作畫等個人藝術活動也蓬勃的進行。 They painted on the walls of naval base, making dolls and masks, moreover, they collected samples of Gureombi rocks, and painting on the facilities as personal art was also very popular. 拍照與攝影在江汀村扮演重要角色。特別是擔任了將環繞江汀村的種種違法與不公義的情況紀錄下來的角色。 Photo taking and filming play important roles in the event of Gangjeong Village. Especially they play the roles of recording various illegal things and unjustness that surround the Gangjeong Village. 拍照與攝影雖屬於藝術領域,在江汀村現場則成為紀錄真實的力量。Though photo-taking and filming belonged to the artistic field, at the spot of Gangjeong Village, they are the power to record the truth. (12) 懇談會與研討會 Meeting and conference 懇談會與研討會是為了解決問題的溝通場所、為了找出替代方案的機會。Meeting and conference are places for solving the problems and seeking the alternative solutions. 透過懇談會和研討會,讓大眾理解江汀村問題的本質。幫助人們將江汀村海軍基地問題視作濟州島全島的問題,甚至整個東亞的問題。 Through meetings and conferences, the public can understand the essence of Gangjeong Village issues. They help people to regard the issues happen at the naval base in Gangjeong Village as the problem for the whole Jeju Island, even for the entire East Asian region. (13) 國際連帶 International Alliance 僅在東亞地區就有無數與濟州島相同的基地建設案例。沖繩本島、琉球群島、菲律賓、台灣、關島、天寧島、夏威夷等,江汀村與濟州島經歷的痛苦也發生在東亞周邊的島嶼地帶。 There are countless similar cases with constructing military bases just in the East Asian region.The pains that Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, Philippines, Taiwan, Guam, Tinian, Hawaii, Gangjeong Village and Jeju Island have been through also happen to those islands around the East Asian region. 國際連帶是非軍隊的民眾所創造的為了和平之行動。 The International Alliance is the movement for peace founded by non-military people. (14) 裁判(法律上的鬥爭)以及對行政機關提出訴訟 It judges for cases (legal struggle) and proposes lawsuit to the administrative authorities. 江汀村村民首次進行的官司是關於為了進行臨時大會,解任主導引進海軍基地的前村長的行政審判。 The first lawsuit proposed by villagers of Gangjeong Village was for temporary General Assembly, and to dismiss the former chief who dominated the introduction of naval base with administrative trial. 為守護「䃓澰泌(Gureombi)」岩石以及江汀海,進行了:國防部軍事設施事業實施計畫無效確定訴訟與執行中止申請、 絕對保證地域解除處分無效確定訴訟與執行中止申請、 公有水面填埋承認處分取消訴訟與執行中止申請等, 但是全都在大法院中敗訴了。 To defend the Gureombi rocks and Gangjeong Ocean, they carried out below: The application for certifying the invalidity of military facility program by DoD and the request to terminate the construction. The application for certifying the invalidity of sanction of absolute reservation area and the request to terminate the progress. The application for cancelling the enforcement of landfill and disposal for the state-owned land above the water surface and the call to terminate the progress. But all of them failed in the Supreme Court. 為阻止不法工程與人權侵害,而不斷地進行向行政機關告發的行動。但是行政機關一直以來以消極的方式應對。 To prevent illegal construction and human rights violations, they continuously report offenders to the administrative authorities. But the administrative authorities have been responding in a passive way.
國內與國際連帶 Domestic and International Alliances 監視與紀錄 Monitoring and recording 不間斷的抗議行動 Constant protests
1. 以國務總理為對象,申請了約1元的損害賠償 Targeted at the Prime Minister as the object, they applied for the claim of 1 dollar compensation. (1) 2012年2月,政府依據國務總理室所實施的海軍基地模擬,作了15萬噸級游輪進出港為可行之判斷,並強行動工。 In February 2012, according to the naval base simulation implemented by the Prime Minister's Room, the government made a judgement for that 150,000-ton cruise ships can get in and out of the port, as the evidence of availability and forced to resume construction. 但是,參與了模擬會議的韓國海洋大學教授的Kim, GilSu教授在濟州道議會行政事務監察會上主張: However, Professor Kim GilSu, from the Korea Maritime University who participated in the simulated session, proposed below in Jeju Parliamentary Conference at Administrative Supervision Meeting: 「海軍基地模擬驗證報告書中,有意將結果導向不使工程被中斷的方向」,因此掀起了風波。強行施工後,到2012年11月提起訴訟為止,發生了共390多名江汀村村民以及和平活動家在反對海軍基地的行動過程中,遭捕並被送上法庭、接受司法審判的情況。2012年11月23日,前村長姜東均「在針對因為政府的濟州海軍基地強行動工,而使江汀村村民們所受到的傷害,請求加以賠償的意思下,以及為號召國民們共同參與的象徵性意義下」提出了以國務總理Kim, HwangSik為對象,要求精神賠償金1元的損害賠償申請訴訟。 "The report of simulation verification by naval base intended to orient the results toward being not interrupted,” and this also caused a storm. After the forced construction till November 2012, there were more than 390 villagers from Gangjeong Village and peace activists arrested, sent to the courts and faced lawsuits during the process of demonstrating the anti-naval base movement. On November 23, 2012, the former chief Jiang Donghyun aimed at Prime Minister Kim, HwangSik as the object and claimed 1 dollar as a symbolic loss for spirit compensation for the government’s ignorance on harms brought to villagers in Gangjeong Village and forcible construction, without advocating and calling citizens to join. (2) 全國各地的許多市民們都參與了此訴訟,但一審與上訴審判都敗訴。 Many citizens from over the country joined in this lawsuit, but the first instance trial and appeal both were lost. 2. 以國家情報院院長為對象,提出損害賠償申請 They targeted the President of National Intelligence Agency as the object and applied the claim for loss. (1) 2013年6月5日,前村長姜東均與其他21人參加2012年世界自然保存大會(World Conservation Conference, WCC)),On June 5, 2013, the former chief Jiang Donghyun and the other 21 people participated in the 2012 World Conservation Conference, WCC. 前國情院院長Won, SeHoon指控這些以和平的方法宣傳海軍基地建設問題的江汀村村民以及和平活動家為「從北左派」。 The former President of the National Intelligence Service, Won, SeHoon, labeled these villagers and peace activists who advocated the issue of the naval base in Gangjeong Construction with peaceful manners as the "leftists from the north sides." 對此,向國情院院長以及其主管單位大韓民國法務部長官申請損害賠償。 In this regard, the residents applied for claims from the President of the NIS, its sectors and the officers of the Minister of Justice, ROK for their losses. (2) 但是2014年11月2日,法院「關於前國情院院長實際上是否做此發言,沒有證據,縱使真有做此發言,也無法看做指稱特定人士。」因而駁回原告的申請。 However, On November 2, 2014, the court stated:” Whether the former President of NIS had made such statement cannot be verified now, and even if he did, the subject could not be regarded as a particular person." and withdrew the application. 3. 因構造物而使漁船破損的損害賠償申請 The compensation application for the damages on fishing boats caused by structural objects. 2015年12月28日,因濟州海軍基地建設過程中,被設置的海上構造物,發生了江汀村村民的漁船遭到破損的事故。針對修理費用825萬韓元的損害,以國家為對象,提出了訴訟。法院下了「國家應向村民支付330萬韓元」原告部分勝訴的判決。 On December 28, 2015, during the process of constructing Jeju naval base process, villagers’ fishing boats were damaged by the maritime structural objects. Therefore, as to the fee of repairing, 8.25 million Korean dollars was claimed to the nation as a lawsuit. The court made a judgement that “the country should pay the villagers 3.3 million Korean dollars” as the prosecutors won the case.
extra (yes: which?)
1. 江汀村協會 Gangjeong Village Association (1) 江汀村協會從2011年起便提議在「䃓澰泌(Gureombi)」岩石上設立生態和平公園代替海軍基地。現在仍有許多市民與學者持續契而不捨地提議將濟州海軍基地轉換成和平公園以及和平大學。 Since 2011, the Gangjeong Village Association proposed to build the ecological park of peace on the Gureombi rocks, instead of the naval base. There are still many citizens and scholars continuously proposing the request to transfer the Jeju naval base into the park of peace and university of peace. 江汀村協會在2016年2月,舉辦了生命和平文化村莊宣布大會。如同天主教濟州教區主教的預言:「江汀村,即便你是這片土地上最小的一個村子,整個國家的和平,將從你開始。」江汀村本身正朝向生命與和平的聖地發展。 In February 2016, the Gangjeong Village Association held the General Assembly of Life and Peaceful Cultures. As the prophecy of Catholic Bishop in Jeju Island:"Gangjeong Village, though you are the smallest village on this land, the hope of peace for the entire country shall starts from you.”. As the Gangjeong Village is developing the holy land of life and peace. 2. 創造非武裝和平之島濟州的人們 The people who created the unarmed and peaceful island Jeju (1) 創造非武裝和平之島濟州的人們主張讓濟州島再次恢復到最初完全沒有軍事基地的和平之島的替代方案。 The people who created the unarmed and peaceful island Jeju advocated that the Jeju Island should be resumed to is original status without any military base as the alternative solution of being an island of peace. 為此,在濟州島組成了「創造非武裝和平之島濟州的人們」之組織,提供讓市民們作為創造和平之島的主體之發揮空間。 For this, the organization “the People Who Created the Unarmed and Peaceful Island Jeju” to let citizens play out their ideas about the main body of the island of peace. (2) 由「創造非武裝和平之島濟州的人們」所提議的一個代表性活動為,在被用作引發南京大屠殺的日帝海軍轟炸機之基地的阿德勒飛機場上,舉辦南京大屠殺追悼會。 A symbolic activity proposed by ”the People Who Created the Unarmed and Peaceful Island Jeju” was to hold the Nanjing Massacre Memorial on the Alddreu Airfield, where was the airbase of Japanese bombers while the massacre in Nanjing occurred. 此活動被視作重要活動,意在超越做為加害者與被害者之關係,並以此為契機,希望在濟州島上創造一條能夠治癒歷史創傷的路。 This activity was regarded as an important activity and to cross over the relation between the perpetrator and victim and as an opportunity, wished to create a path toward healing the historic trauma for the Jeju Island. 3. 為了和平的島嶼連帶 / 沖繩-韓國民眾連帶 Alliances of Islands for Peace/ Okinawa - Korean Alliance (1) 主要由濟州、台灣、沖繩的人們組成的「為了和平的島嶼連帶」是為解決環繞東亞海上的軍事衝突與領土紛爭,持續進行與國境島嶼地區的連帶活動。 Alliances of Islands for Peace consists of people from Jeju, Taiwan and Okinawa is the joint movement continuously fight for islands in national borders and solve the military conflicts and territorial disputes on East Asian Ocean.. 透過和平之島連帶,倡議將這紛爭與衝突的大海作為「共存與和平之海」。Through the Alliances of Islands for Peace, we advocated to regard the ocean of conflicts and controversies as the “ocean of living together and peace”. (2) 在因軍事基地而受苦的國境島嶼上,每年舉辦和平之海國際和平營。 As to the islands in national borders suffering from the military bases, we hold the international camps of the ocean of peace every year. 4. 守護日本憲法第九條聚會 The meeting of guarding of the Article 9 of Japanese Constitution. 日本各地皆有「守護憲法第九條之聚會」。 長野市的「守護憲法第九條之聚會」提議,希望與濟州島的制定和平憲法運動進行連帶。 There is meeting of guarding of the Article 9 of Japanese Constitution everywhere in Japan. The meeting of guarding of the Article 9 of Japanese Constitution occurred in Nagano City proposed that they wish to make movement for the making of peaceful constitution for Jeju Island. 5. 大靜地區的女性農民會 / 濟州農民會 Female Farmers’ Association in Daejeong region / Jeju Farmers’ Association 關於大靜邑阿德勒飛機場占地,大靜邑地區的居民們持續提議希望阿德勒飛機場不作軍事基地使用,As to the occupied land of Alddreu Airfield in Daejeong-eup area, residents of Daejeong-eup keep proposing to request the government to not use the Alddreu Airfield as a military base. 並至少能返還予民間機關,作為歷史博物館或者和平公園使用。 And they request the Alddreu Airfield can at least be returned to the private sectors as a historic museum or a park of peace. 6. 2016東亞迫遷法庭準備委員會 The 2016 Preparation Committee for East Session of the International Tribunal on Evictions 從日帝殖民時期起遭到強制徵收的阿德勒飛機場用地,過了70年的今日尚未能返還。 The land of Alddreu Airfield that was forcibly taken away since the age under Japan Empire still has not been returned after the 70 years. 又,以非民主的、不法的、權宜性的方式建設的濟州海軍基地相關官司,幾乎全被判敗訴。 Further, a non-democratic, illegal, expedient way of Jeju naval base construction-related lawsuits, was sentenced to almost all losing. 又,根據濟州海軍基地建設強行動工的經驗,很可能成為下一個迫遷對象的第二機場尚無能夠成功阻止的替代方案。 Besides, according to experiences of forcible construction of Jeju naval base, it is likely to become the next target of eviction for the Second Airport that cannot be successfully blocked as an alternative. 因此,我們透過東亞迫遷法庭,希望藉此讓全世界更多人了解到與濟州一樣做為國境之島嶼所面臨的軍事基地問題。 Therefore, through the East Asia Regional Tribunal on Evictions, we hope to let more people in the world know about the military base issues just like the one Jeju Island is facing. 希望再也不要因為在島嶼地區建設軍事基地,而強制迫遷我們所擁有的和平。 We hope to never see military base built on islands again, and those peace taken away due to these projects. 透過迫遷法庭,希望最少能給予在島嶼上建設軍事基地、威脅和平生存權的當局警告。 Through the East Asia Regional Tribunal on Evictions, we wish to warn the authorities to not build military bases on islands and threat the right of existence and peace. 我們分享的不只是濟州島的故事,還希望為因軍事基地而受苦的亞太平洋島嶼人民說話。 What we share are not just stories about Jeju Island, but also conversations among people and islands around Asia-Pacific regions that suffer from the military base issues.
2011年濟州海軍基地在野5黨真相調查 Fact-finding by five opposition parties for the Jeju naval base was initiated in 2011. 2011年6月,民主黨、民主勞動黨、創造韓國黨、進步新黨、國民參與黨,從國會的層面,針對海軍基地工程進行了真相調查。 In June 2011, the Democratic Party, Democratic Labor Party, Creative Korea Party, New Progress Party, and the Participant Citizen Party processed the fact-seeking on the naval base construction from the aspect of Congress. 作為執政黨的大國家黨未加入,因此雖有「打折的真相調查」的評價,卻是以國會層面進行的第一份真相調查。 The Grand National Party, as the ruling party did not join, but although this "fact-seeking” was mocked as the “discounted survey”, it still was the first investigation from the aspect of Congress. 2. 2014年濟州道知事的「為了江汀村的名譽恢復之真相調查」提議 The governor of Jeju proposed the "Survey of Truth to Resume the Fame of Gangjeong Village” in 2014. 2014年6月23日,當時作為濟州道知事候選人的Won, Hee-ryong (現任知事)透過江汀治癒分科委員會,為了解決江汀村的衝突,而提議進行真相調查。候選人對於真相調查的立場是,因為工程已經進行到無可挽回的程度,因此即便發現了重大問題,工程中斷或從原點再檢討是不可能的,只能有公開道歉以及關於此部分的補償。 On June 23, 2014, the candidate of the governor of Jeju, Won, Hee-ryong (incumbent governor) proposed to process the fact-seeking through the Jeju Healing Committee to solve the conflicts in Gangjeong Village. Won, Hee-ryongThe candidate Won, Hee-ring's position for fact-seeking was since the construction was at the extent of an irreversible level. Therefore, even we found major problems, the interruption of construction or review from the starting point are something impossible, so we could only choose to apologise publicly and make compensation for this. 江汀村協會針對道知事所提議之真相調查案舉行了臨時大會,雖討論了許久,贊成與反對意見仍分歧。結果,於2014年11月11日,決定若撤回在村內建設軍官舍,則願意接受真相調查的條件。 但是,海軍對軍官舍的工程強行動工,真相調查告吹。 The Gangjeong Village Association held the General Assembly for the fact-seeking proposed by the governor of Jeju. Although it had been a long time of discussion, their opinions remained divided. As a result, on November 11, 2014, they decided, if the residences for military officers were withdrawn then, they would accept the condition of fact-seeking. But, the Navy still forcibly ran the construction, so the fact-seeking still failed.
海軍的求償權申請 Navy’s application of claims 「為了民主化的律師集會」中,25名律師正聚精會神準備關於求償權申請的訴訟。 In "the Lawyers’ Rally for Democratization", 25 lawyers were concentrating on preparing for the application of claims. 江汀村協會在海軍基地入口搭建了帳篷式的江汀村協會會館,開始了無期抗爭。 The Gangjeong Village Association built the tent-type Gangjeong Village Association Hall in front of the main entrance of naval base and started their protest without limit of time. 關於中德三岔路村莊的迫遷 As to the forcible eviction for the village at Jungdeok Samgeori (intersection). 與行政當局進行協商 They are still in negotiations with the administrative authorities.
The measures recorded in question 20 are currently processing.

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Kim Dong Won
Peace Activist for Gangjeong Village
Strategic Committee of Anti-introduction of Naval Base for Gangjeong Village
평화의섬 제주도 서귀포시 강정통물로 112
South Korean
+82 1094699413
Emily Wang ( )

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